A patient with renal disease is at risk for development of uremia as his nephrons progressively deteriorate because
Osteodystrophy commonly occurs in patients with chronic renal failure because of
insufficient active vitamin D
A patient's arterial blood gases on room air are pH = 7.35, PaCO2 = 32 mm Hg, and HCO3- = 17 mEq/L. What is the correct interpretation?
Compensated metabolic acidosis
Which of the following arterial blood gases indicates a compensated respiratory acidosis?
pH 7.36, PaCO2 55, HCO3- 30
Which of the following statements best describes the pathophysiologic process of hypernatremia?
Increased extracellular osmolality leads to cellular shriveling
After a patient has received fluid therapy for several hours, her supine and standing heart rate and blood pressure are recorded. Which of the following results indicate a need for further therapy?
Supine HR 88, BP 100/80; standing HR 110, BP 98/78
Signs and symptoms of chronic renal failure begin to appear when approximately 75% of nephrons have been lost.
Match the disease processes with their clinical manifestations (answers are used more than once).
Proteinuria - nephrotic syndrome; Azotemia - uremic syndrome; Oliguria - uremic syndrome; Hyperlipidemia - nephrotic syndrome
Classify the following arterial blood gas: pH = 7.52, PaCO2 = 30 mm Hg, HCO3- = 24 mEq/L.
Administration of sodium bicarbonate to an individual with acidosis will
increase formation of carbon dioxide in the blood.
Renal artery stenosis, hypertension, and nephrosclerosis may all contribute to renal failure by causing
A person who experiences a panic attack and develops hyperventilation symptoms may experience.
numbness and tingling in extremities.
A patient's serum level upon admission was 148 mEq/L, her heart rate was 110 lying supine, and her blood pressure was 88/60. What is the most appropriate fluid therapy
Give IV normal saline (0.9%).
The most helpful laboratory value in monitoring the progression of renal failure is
The finding of ketones in the urine suggests that a patient may have which of the following acid-base disorders
Abnormalities in intracellular regulation of enzyme activity and cellular production of ATP are associated with
A total of 70% to 80% of the water and electrolytes filtered by the kidney are reabsorbed by the
Vomiting of stomach contents or continuous nasogastric suctioning may predispose to development of
metabolic acid deficit.
Which of the following hormones is associated with an increase in hypotonic fluid reabsorption from the tubular fluid
A high urine sodium and a fractional sodium excretion greater than 1 is associated with:
acute tubular necrosis.
Decreased neuromuscular excitability can be seen in which two electrolyte disorders
Hypercalcemia and hypermagnesemia
Because of continuing decreased urine output, the function of a patient's kidneys is evaluated with urine electrolytes. The urine Na+ is found to be quite low. This is most likely due to
aldosterone effect on kidney tubules.
C.G. is a 42-year-old with type 1 diabetes that is normally well controlled with insulin. Three days ago she developed a viral infection with high fever and has not been checking her blood glucose regularly. She is now in the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain and flu symptoms. C.G.'s urine is positive for glucose and ketones, and serum glucose and blood gases are obtained. What fluid balance problem is C.G. at risk for secondary to glycosuria?
A patient with gouty arthritis develops renal calculi. The composition of these calculi is most likely to be
uric acid crystals.
Osmoreceptors located in the hypothalamus control the release of
vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH).
A 14-month-old girl is brought to urgent care by her parents for persistent fever, vomiting, and diarrhea. Upon questioning, the parents report that the child has had only one to two wet diapers per day for the last 2 days. The child's weight is noted to be 2 pounds less than her normal weight. This is equivalent to approximately how much fluid loss?
A patient who develops acute renal failure after receiving nephrotoxic antibiotics most likely has postrenal acute renal failure.
A patient with chronic renal failure has chronically elevated blood pressure requiring pharmacologic therapy. Which of the following drugs may be inappropriate because it interferes with the mechanisms that maintain GFR
Which of the following conditions would result in increased GFR?
Increased glomerular hydrostatic pressure