Bible Semester Exam
Terms in this set (77)
A defense for the Christian faith
3 types of apologetics
apologetics as proof
providing a rational basis for faith; offering evidence/reason for belief
apologetics as defense
answering questions or objections of unbelievers
apologetics as offense
showing the foolishness and inconsistencies of unbelieving thought, philosophy, worldview
Study of how we know
How someone makes sense of the world and what they are seeing/experiencing
The things we know or assume that serve as foundations of our worldview
Argument that religion will eventually die out and become obsolete as society becomes more advanves
There are many paths to God; no one particular religion has exclusivity or the right to claim absolute Truth
Argues that there is a possibility that those who do not make an explicit proclamation of Christ may still be saved by him; salvation based on general revelation
There is only one path to God and/or salvation
Self-referentially incoherent statement
A claim that is not consistent when applied to itself; also called self-refuting
Anything that brings suffering, unpleasantness, or difficulty into the lives of creatures in this world (hurricane, disease, death)
the sin of rational creatures (murder, lying, adultery)
Seeking to provide a justification for existence, goodenss, omnipotence of God while recognizing the problem of evil
Worldview that does not know if there is a God or any supernatural realm beyond this natural world; everything in this view has a scientific explanation; emphasizes the here and now, no concept of the eternal
What is the cultural view of freedom?
Embrace extreme individualism and self-autonomy; be true to yourself; create your own meaning, purpose, and freedom; NO LIMITATIONS OR CONSTRAINTS
What is the biblical view of freedom?
Sin is enslaving and Jesus died to set us free; Freedom is the liberty from sin, not the liberty to do whatever you want
Freedom from some barriers or constraint on our choices
Freedom for living in a certain way
A christian in name only; they do not actually practice christianity and they barely believe it
Someone who "over-believes" and "over-practices" Christianity; acts intolerant, self-righteous, opinionated, and harsh in their zeal for their beliefs
What is the problem with the fanatic? What are they missing?
Christianity is not about becoming morally superior to others or becoming self-righteous. Someone who truly believes the gospel will be growing in humility, respect, love, and empathy; Fanatics are not too committed to Christianity, they are not committed enough
Based on the 'verification principle' which holds that no one should believe a proposition unless it can be proven rationally by logic or empiricially by sense experience
Problem with strong rationalism
You can't empirically prove why we should only believe what is empirically proven. The view of strong rationalism also requires analysis from a completely objective perspective, which is not possible
There is no universal, objective truth; each point of view has its own truth
Problem with relativism
Saying there is no univeral truth is a universal truth. It is self-referentially incoherent
Assumes that there are some arguments that many or even most rational people will find convincing, even though there is no argument that will be persuasive to everyone regardless of viewpoint
How does Keller say we should 'prove' God's existence? Why does he use the word 'clues'?
Because there are a bunch of arguments for God. Some will convince certain people and others will convince other people. All arguments are rationally avoidable in some way, but some beliefs are just more reasonable. He is appealing to cultural rationality. By collecting a large number of clues, he hopes to develop an overall argument
'The Mysterious Bang' or 'Cosmological Argument'
Why is there something rather than nothing? Most scientists claim the Big Bang is the origin of the universe. Scientifically, we know everything has a cause. This means the big bag should also have a cause, but if it's the origin of the universe then that means it would make sense that it was caused by something "non-contigent" or something that didn't need to be caused.
'Cosmic Welcome Mat,' 'Fine Tuning Argument,' 'Anthropic Principle'
For life to exist, an incredibly high number of regularities and constants must all exist together. The probability that this just happened to occur is very small. This points to the conclusion that all of these conditions are specifically designed by something.
The Regularity of Nature
All science is based on the fact that nature is regular. But you can't prove WHY there is a continued regularity of nature, we just have to believe that nature will continue to be regular. This leads to the conclusion that there is something to sustain/maintain the regularity of creation
The Clue of Beauty
If everything is accidental then beauty serves no purpse. It's just how our brain responds to stuff scientifically. The emotional response we have to true art/beauty (including the feeling of love) is simply an illusion. Sometimes we are moved by great beauty that evokes something deeper within us, a longing. this would lead us to conclude that because we long for beauty there must exist something to satisfy the longing for beauty. Although we don't get a steak just because we want it, the fact that we want a steak shows that steaks exist.
What is the "Clue-Killer"?
All of our understanding of God, the way we view beauty, etc. is caused by natural selection. The arguments for God appeal to us because they are associated with traits that helped our ancestors adapt and survive.
How do we respond to the Clue Killer?
If our belief in God, beauty, morality is a product of natural selection, then how can we trust our own thoughts that lead us to believe that natural selection is the cause of our belief in God, beauty, morality. If we ignore God, then all of the clues mentioned earlier are unexpected. Why would we expect order or beauty if there was not an ordered God to make it?
Who was the greatest comedian in the Bible?
Samson, because he brought down the house.
personal sense of morality
comes from an external morality that is not affected by our beliefs
How does Keller describe the morality of western secular culture?
A free-floating morality
Define free floating morality
People have strong moral convictions, but they don't have a solid foundation for those moral convictions. We self-authorize our morals, which means we should not impose our morals on others. Our culture believes in moral values, the personal sense of morality, but they reject the moral obligation that comes from an external morality that is not affected by our beliefs.
How do our worship and loves affect apologetics?
Everyone operates from a sense of worship/love toward something (not necessarily God); since the fall, this has been turned away from God; this means that every person has some kind of worldview that they start from that includes certain presuppositions; there are certain worldview issues (why is there something not nothing, what went wrong, is there any hope, how does the story end) that every worldview must answer, which shapes how we form our apologetics
Is skepticism or religion on the rise? Explain.
Skepticism- non-church popuation rising in the west; major insitutions (college, govt) becoming secular; govt action becoming more secular
Faith- world Church growing; conservative Christian churches on the rise; religious people having more children
Why is every doubt a leap of faith?
interpretation of science/empirical truths are based on our own beliefs, meaning that every doubt comes from an alternative base faith- I don't belive this thing because I believe this other thing
Is Christianity exclusive, inclusive, or pluralistic?
Exclusive ("no one comes to the Father except through me"); We are dead in our trespasses and salvation comes only through Christ's perfect sacrifice
How many Christian apologists does it take to change a light bulb?
First we need to undermine the light bulb's faulty presuppositions. Second, we need to discuss how the properties of light and electricity produce light. Third...
What does the story of the "Blind Men and the Elephant" teach about religion? What are the problems with this fable?
Teaches that all religions are part of a whole
The analogy assumes that at least one person can see the whole elephant, in other words: when claiming that everyone sees only part of one truth, you claim to be able to see the whole truth
Relationship/differences between moral evil and natural evil in the Bible
Moral evil originated with the fall of satan, who then tempted Eve and caused the fall of man; natural evil is caused by God's curse on Adam as a result of his moral evil
Beliefs of the Moralistic worldview regarding evil (cause of, response to, and resolution to evil)
Evil caused by wrongdoing, doing good is response to wrongdoing, reincarnation/Eternal Bliss is resolution to sin
Beliefs of the Transcendant worldview regarding evil (cause of, response to, and resolution to evil)
Evil is an illusion, detachment from desire is response to evil, Enlightenment (escape from physical) is resolution to sin
Beliefs of the Fatalistic worldview regarding evil (cause of, response to, and resolution to evil)
Evil caused by destiny/fate, endurance is response to evil, glory and honor that outlives you is resolution to sin
Beliefs of the Dualistic worldview regarding evil (cause of, response to, and resolution to evil)
Evil caused by a cosmic conflict, purified faithfulness is response to evil, triumph of the "light" and the good is resolution to sin
Beliefs of the Secular worldview regarding evil (cause of, response to, and resolution to evil)
Evil is accidental/random, technology/technique/therapy/education is response to evil, a better society is resolution to sin
Explain the "No-see-ums" illustration of Alvin Plantinga and how it relates to the problem of evil
Evil isn't pointless just because you can't find a reason for your suffering. The explanation may just be invisible to you, just like if you look into a tent you will see a great dane, but not a 'no seem um' even if they are there
4 Different Christian/Theistic Theodicies
Free Will Argument
Process Theology/Open Theism
Mankind was created in a state of moral immaturity and in order to reach maturity, it is necessary that humans undergo various forms of pain and suffering
Evil came about because God allowed humanity to have free will, so God is not responsible/accountable for evil entering the world; God did not prevent the fall so as to preserve man's freedom
Process Theology/Open Theism
God is not responsible for evil/injustice in the world because he does not actually know or control future events; the future is still open, and God adjusts to humanity's decisions
"Greater Good" Hypothesis
God uses evil to bring about a greater purpose or glory, even though we may not be able fully to see or comprehend the specifics of this greater-good
Broad message of the book of Job
We do not always get full explanations of our suffering, but we need to trust in God; we do not always get the answers but it provides the resources to face suffering with hope and courage
What do Job's friends claim his suffering was caused by?
Some sin committed by Job or his children
How does Job respond to God by the end of the book?
How has Christianity consistently related to various cultures
What once began as a Jewish movement in Jerusalem rapidly spread to the ends of the earth, while still holding to the same fundamental beliefs and doctrines; each human culture has distinct strengths for the enrichment of the human race; in heaven and the renewed earth we will retain our cultural differences
Explain the Grand Canyon analogy
The person who is standing near the destination but is actually on a cliff above it is further away than the person who is a ways away but level with it
(the person who appears free may actually be much further away than the person with limitations)
Describe the relationship between religion and violence. Does eliminating religion solve the problem? Why or why not?
Extremism in religion is very guilty of violence
However, extremism in secularism is also guilty of violence; also Christians are usually the ones leading social reforms
How often does Jesus speak of hell in the gospels?
How is hell described in the Bible?
Hell is where we put ourselves by our choices; it is our freely chosen identity apart from God; it is the final culmination of rejecting God and refusing to rightly acknowledge him
What is the best depiction of God's love and His wrath
His love- Jesus (AKA God) sacrificed himself and humbled himself from ultimate power to die on the cross
His wrath- God had to punish Jesus (who took on our sins) for the sin with the ultimate penalty of death and seperating Jesus (God) from the Trinity
How does the Bible primarily describe sin?
Making good things into ultimate things; wrecking our relationship with God, others, and creation (Shalom)
What are the personal consequences of sin?
Sin puts our identity in anything other than God
What are the social consequences of sin?
Tribalism- our obsession with our sin pushes aside all of the other good things in our lives
What are the cosmic consequences of sin?
Perverts the created order (Shalom- the absolute wholeness, harmony, joy, flourishing), ruins the original design for earth
Why did Jesus have to die?
To orchestrate forgiveness for us because of the cost of forgiveness- he had to pay the debt
Because God is love, God exchanged himself for us on the cross
What is involved in real forgiveness?
Suffering- Absorbing the cost of the wrongdoing, forgoing the consolation of punishing someone else
What is involved in real love?
Taking the hurting/suffering/pain of the other person onto yourself; an exchange of your happiness/comfort/etc with their suffering
What do real forgiveness and real love have to do with the cross?
Jesus is absorbing the pain/suffering required for forgiveness on the cross, and he did this willfully; Jesus exchanges his perfection (and the relationship of the trinity) with our sin in an ultimate act of love on the cross, which sets a pattern for a love being an exchange
Know Romans 1:18-25 (fill in the blank)