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Government Final Exam Review
This is the review for Mrs. Jaunese's final exam - Governement
Terms in this set (43)
New Jersey Plan
-one house or unicameral legislature
-equal representation for each state
-favored small states
-two house or bicameral legislature
-both based on population - favored large states
-three branches of government - judicial, executive and legislative
Connecticut Compromise/Great Compromise
-merge of Virginia and New Jersey Plans
-three branches: judicial, executive and legislative
-Senate based on equal representation by state (2)
-House of Representatives based on population
The Commerce Compromise-
The Constitution allows the federal government to regulate interstate commerce and foreign trade.
The Constitution allows the federal government to tax imports, but not exports.
for taxation and representation purposes- slaves would be counted as 3/5ths
Compromise for Ratification
Compromise for Ratification:
A Bill of Rights would be added to the Constitution.
The Anti-federalists would only support the Constitution if individual freedoms were protected.
division of power between the central government and the state governments
Checks and Balances
system where each branch of government has certain powers to check the actions of the other two braches
Separation of Powers
Powers of the national/federal government are divided among the three branches -legislative, executive and judicial
the idea that the government gets its power from the consent of the people (power from the people)
Rule of Law
the government and its officers are subject to the law, never above it
(government must follow same laws as the people)
Part of Checks and Balances--it is the power of the courts to review the constitutionality of actions of the legislative and executive braches
Difference between a Representative Democracy and Direct Democracy
direct participation by all- will of people is translated into public policy directly through voting
small group of people chosen by the people to act as representatives to express the will of the people
Difference between a Parliamentary government and a Presidential government
people vote for legislature (parliament)
-members of parliament choose the executive (prime minister)
-no checks and balances
people vote for executive and legislature separately
-executive and legislature are independent and coequal
-checks and balances
What type of government do we have in the United States?
Enumerated Powers (Example)
powers specifically given to the FEDERAL government in the constitution
Examples: power to coin money
power to regulate interstate and foreign trade
Reserved Powers (Example)
powers reserved/held for the STATES
Examples: set up schools
set up local governments
Shared Powers (Example)
powers held by both the STATES and FEDERAL governments
Example: power to tax
promote general welfare of citizens
The 10th amendment states that powers not set aside for the federal government or denied to the states in the Constitution are reserved for the states. *It separates powers (federalism) and limits powers of the federal government.
The Commerce Clause provides the federal government with the power to regulate interstate (between states) and foreign trade. The federal government is limited to regulating imports (not exports). *A lot of the laws passed by Congress are related to the commerce clause.
Necessary and Proper Clause
The Necessary and Proper Clause grants powers to the federal government that are essential to operating the government of the US. This is also called the Elastic clause, because it allows the federal government to "stretch" its powers.
Article IV - The Full Faith and Credit Clause
The full faith and credit clause requires states to honor the laws, records and judicial rulings of the other states. Example: a 15 year old from Nebraska can drive in Michigan.
Article VI - The Supremacy Clause
Article VI of the Constitution deals mostly with the SUPREMACY clause. The supremacy clause states that the Constitution is the highest law in the land.
What type of government must every state have?
Describe McCulloch v Maryland and its impact on the government...
Argument over Maryland taxing a federal government institution (bank) and whether the US could create a national bank.
*The court ruled Maryland could not tax the federal government and that the US could create a bank (under the necessary and proper clause).
Describe Gibbons v Ogden and its impact on the government....
A case involving two ferry operators-Ogden had a New York license while Gibbons had a federal license. Ogden argued that Gibbons did not have landing privileges in NY with his federal license. The court sided with Gibbons, because the federal govt. outranks the state govts.
Describe Marbury v Madison and its impact on the government...
Marbury was appointed a position under President Adams, when Jefferson took office he refused to serve the commission papers. Marbury sued. This case is important because it was the first case to establish JUDICIAL REVIEW. The supreme court had the authority to review federal laws.
allows the people to get an elected official removed from office
allows the people to propose new laws.
allows the people to eliminate a current law
What process does a recall, initiative, and referendum go through to become effective?
requires getting a certain number of signatures on a petition and then putting it to a vote of the people to make it effective
Describe the sub units of government that fall under the US government
Federal Government --> State Governments --> County, Township and City governments
List the ladder of laws of the United States
Acts of Congress-Treaties (US Laws)
County-Township-and city govt. ordinances
Describe the Bill of Rights and how they limit the power of government
The Bill of Rights is made up of the first ten amendments of the Constitution. It lists our basic rights and provides a protection from government action against them. We, the citizens, have rights the government cannot infringe upon.
Describe how a bill becomes a law...
be able to draw a flow chart of the bill to law process......
Job descriptions for the Floor leaders, Whips, President Pro-Tempore, President of the Senate and Speaker of the House
Floor leaders: steer floor action in favor of their party
Whips: monitors/rounds up votes from party members
President Pro-Tempore: fills in when VP is absent
President of the Senate: is VP of USA, only votes when there is a tie
Speaker of the House: decides floor action of the house
Requirements for being a member of the House of Representatives
-must be 25 years old
-must be a citizen for seven years
-must be a resident in the state in which they were elected
Requirements for being a member of the Senate
-must be 30 years old
-must be a citizen for nine years
-must be a resident in the state in which they were elected
Requirements for being President of the United States
-must be a natural born citizen
-must be 35 years old
-must have lived in the US for at least fourteen years
Main jobs of the three branches:
Legislative branch = creates laws
Executive branch = executes the laws
Judicial branch = interprets the laws
Explain how the electoral college works
The electoral college is the body that directly elects the president. Each state gets a certain number of the 538 electors, based on the number of senators and members of the House of Reps. The candidate selectors the electors, in most states the winner of the popular vote will get all of the electoral votes. A candidate needs 270 electoral votes to become president.
Roles of the President (7)
-Chief of State: be a good example to US people
-Chief Executive: "boss" of millions of govt. workers
-Chief Diplomat: sets foreign policy/communicates w/ other countries
-Commander-in-Chief: heads our military
-Chief Legislator: can influence Congress on what laws to make
-Chief of Party: helps party members get elected or appointed
-Chief Guardian of the Economy: does not control economy, expected to make it run smoothly.
Difference between a unitary, federal and confederate governments
Unitary governments have most of the power at the central level.
Confederate governments have most of the power at the regional/state level.
Federal governments split their power between the central and regional/state levels.
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