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Biology Midterm NOT FINISHED
Chapters 1, 2, 7-11
Terms in this set (172)
one goal of science is to provide natural explanations for events in the natural world. Science also aims to use those explanations to understand patterns in nature and to make useful predictions about natural events
What are the goals of science?
organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world
Scientific methodology involves observing and asking questions, making inferences and forming hypotheses, conducting controlled experiments, collecting and analyzing data, and drawing conclusions
What procedures are at the core of scientific methodology?
process of noticing and describing events or processes in a careful, orderly way
a logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and expirience
possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question
experiment in which only one variable is changed
factor in a controlled experiment that is deliberately changed; also called manipulated variable
variable that is observed and that changes in response to the independent variable; also called the responding variable
group in an experiment that is exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group except for one independent variable
evidence; information gathered from observation
curiosity, skepticism, open-mindedness, and creativity help scientists generate new ideas
What scientific attitudes help generate new ideas?
Publishing peer-reviewed articles in scientific journals allows researchers to share ideas and to test and evaluate each other's works
Why is peer review important?
in science, the word theory applies to a well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations and hypotheses and that enables scientists to make accurate predictions about new situations
what is a scientific theory?
well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations and hypotheses, and enables scientists to make accurate predictions about new situations
using science involves understanding its context in society and its limitations
What is the relationship between science and society
a particular preference or point of view that is personal, rather than scientific
living things are made up of basic units called cells, are based on a universal genetic code, obtain and use materials and energy, grow and develop, reproductive, respond to their environment, maintain a stable internal environment, and change over time
what characteristics do all living things share?
scientific study of life
genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents
signal to which an organism responds
type of reproduction in which cells from two parents unite to form the first cell of a new organism
process of reproduction involving a single parent that are genetically identical to the parent
relatively constant internal physical and chemical conditions that organisms maintain
the combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials
the study of biology revolves around several interlocking big ideas: the cellular basis of life; information and heredity; matter and energy; growth, development, and reproduction; homeostasis; evolution; structure and function; unity and diversity of life; independence in nature; and science as a way of knowing
what are the central themes of biology?
part of earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere
biology includes many overlapping fields that use different tools to study life from the level of molecules to the entire planet
how do different fields of biology differ in their approach to studying life?
most scientists use the metric system when collecting data and performing experiments
how is the metric system important to science?
the subatomic particles that make up atoms are protons, neutrons and electrons
what are three subatomic particles make up atoms?
the basic unit of matter
the center of an atom, which contains the protons and neutrons; structure that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA
negatively charged particle; located in the space surrounding the nucleus
because they have the same number of electrons, all isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties
how are all of the isotopes of an element similar?
pure substance that consists entirely of on type of atom
one of several forms of a single element, which contains the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
the physical and chemical properties of a compound are usually very different from those of the elements from which it is formed
in what ways do compounds differ from those of the elements from which it is formed
substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
the main types of chemical bonds are ionic bonds and covalent bonds
what are the main types of chemical bonds?
chemical bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
type of bond between atoms in which the electrons are shared
smallest unit of most compounds that displays all the properties of that compound
van der Waals forces
slight attraction that develops between oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules
because water is a polar molecule, it is able to form multiple hydrogen bonds which account for many water's special properties
how does the structure of water contribute to its unique properties
weak attraction between a hydrogen atom and another atom
attraction between different kinds of molecules
force of attraction between different kinds of molecules
polarity gives it the ability to dissolve both ionic compounds and other polar molecules
how does water's polarity influence it properties as a solvent?
material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically changed
type of mixture in which all the components are evenly distributive
substance that is dissolved in a solution
dissolving substance in a solution
mixture of water and non dissolved material
buffers dissolved in life's fluids play an important role in maintaining homeostasis in organisms
why is it important for cells to buffer solutions against rapid changes in pH?
scale with values from 0-14, used to measure the concentration of H+ ions in a solution; a pH of 0-7 is acidic, a pH of 7 is neutral, and a pH of 7-14 is basic
a compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution; a solution with a pH less than 7
a compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution; a solution with a pH more than 7
a compound that prevents sharp, sudden changes in pH
carbon can bond with many elements, including hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen to form the molecules of life
what elements does carbon bond with to make up life's molecules?
living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy. Plants, some animals, and other organisms also use carbohydrates for structural purposes. Lipids can be used to store energy. Some lipids are important parts of biological membranes and waterproof coverings. Nucleic acids store and transit heredity, or genetic information. Some proteins control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes. Others form important cellular, structures, while still others transport substances into or out of cells or help to fight disease
what are functions of each of the four groups of macromolecules?
small chemical unit that makes up a polymer
molecules composed of many monomers; makes up macromolecules
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms; type of nutrient that is the major source of energy for the body
simple sugar molecule
macromolecule made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
subunit of which nucleic acids are composed; made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair
compound with an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other end
chemical reactions involve changes in the chemical bonds that join atoms in compounds
what happens to chemical bonds during chemical reactions?
process that changes, or transforms, one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction
chemical reactions that release energy often occur on their own, or spontaneously. Chemical reactions that absorb energy that absorb energy will not occur without a source of energy
how do energy changes affect wether a chemical reaction will occur?
energy that is needed to get a reaction started
enzymes speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells. Temperature, pH, and regulatory molecules can affect the activity of enzymes
what role do enzymes play in living things and what affects their function?
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
protein catalyst that speeds up the rate of specific biological resources
reactant of an enzyme - catalyzed reaction
The cell theory states:
- all living things are made up of cells
-cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things
-new cells are produced from existing cells
What is cell theory?
basic unit of all forms of life
fundamental concept of biology that states that all living things are composed of cells; that cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things; and that new cells are produced from existing cells
most microscopes use lenses to magnify the image of an object by focusing light or electrons
how do microscopes work?
prokaryotic cells do not separate their genetic material within a nucleus. In eukaryotic cells, the nucleus separates the genetic material from the rest of the cell
how are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells different?
thin, flexible barrier that surrounds all cells; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
organism whose cells contain a nucleus
unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus
the nucleus contains contains nearly all the cells DNA and, with it the coded instructions for making proteins and other important molecules
what is the role of the cell nucleus?
fluid portion of the cell outside the nucleus
specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic
vacuoles store materials like water, salts, proteins and carbohydrates. lysosomes break down lipids, carbohydrates, and protein into small molecules that can be used by the rest of cell. they are also involved in organelles that have out lived their usefulness. the cytoskeleton helps the cell maintain its shape and is also involved in movement.
what are the functions of vacuoles, lysosomes, and the cytoskeleton?
cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
cell organelle that breaks down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell
network of protein filaments in a eukaryotic cell that gives the cell its shape and internal organization and its involved in movement
structure in an animal cell that helps organize cell division
proteins are assembled on ribesomes. proteins made on the rough endoplasmic reticulum include those that will be released, or selected, from the cell as well as many membrane proteins and proteins destined for lysosomes and other specialized locations within the cell. the golgi apparatus modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage in the cell or release outside the cell.
what organelles help make and transport proteins?
cell organelle consisting of RNA and protein found throughout the eukaryotic cells; place where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled
internal membrane system found in eukaryotic cell; place where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled
organelle in cells that modifies, sorts, and packages protein and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage in the cell or release outside the cell
chloroplasts capture the energy from the sunlight and convert it into food that contains chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis. mitochondria convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cells to use
what are the functions of chloroplasts and mitochondria?
organelle found in plant cells and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
the cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also protects and supports the the cell
what is the function of the cell membrane?
strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane in some cells
flexible double-layered sheet that makes up the cell membrane and forms a barrier between the cell and its surroundings
property of biological membranes that allows some substances to pass across it while others can not; also called semipermeable membrane
the movement of materials across the cell membrane without using cellular energy is called passive transport
what is passive transport?
process by which particles tend to move freely from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
in which molecules pass across the membrane through cell membrane channels
water channel protein in a cell
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
when the concentration of two solutions is the same
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes
pressure that must be applied to prevent osmotic movement across a selectively permeable membrane
the movement of materials against a concentration difference is known as active transport. active transport requires energy
what is active transport?
to maintain homeostasis, unicellular organisms grow, respond to the environment, transform energy, and reproduce.
how do individual cells maintain homeostasis?
relatively constant internal physical and chemical conditions that organisms maintain
the cells of multicellular organisms become specialized for particular tasks and communicate with one another to maintain homeostasis
how do the cells of multicellular organisms work together to maintain homeostasis?
group of similar cells that perform a particular function
group of tissue that work together to perform closely related functions
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
on or in a cell, a specific protein to whose shape fits that of a specific molecular messenger,, such as a hormone
ATP can easily release and store energy by breaking and re-forming the bonds between its phosphate groups. this characteristic of ATP makes it exceptionally useful as a basic energy source of all cells
why is ATP useful to cells?
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Compound used by cells to store and release energy
in the process of photosynthesis, plants convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy stored in the bonds of carbohydrates
what happens during the process of photosynthesis?
organism that obtains food by consuming other living things; also called a consumer
organism that is able to capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
process used by autotrophs to capture light energy and use it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
photosynthetic organisms capture energy from sunlight with pigments
what role do pigments play in the process of photosynthesis?
light-absorbing molecules used by plants to gather the sun's energy
principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms
fluid portion of the chloroplast; outside of the thylakoids
an electron carrier is a pair of high-energy electrons and transfer them, along with most of their energy, to another molecule
what are electron carrier molecules?
carrier molecule that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules
photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide(reactants) into high-energy sugars and oxygen(products)
what are the reactants and products of photosynthesis?
CO2 + H2O --> light energy --> C6H12O6 + O2
set of reactions in photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar; also called the Calvin cycle
the light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce oxygen and convert ADP and NADP+ into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH
what happens during the light-dependent reactions?
cluster of chlorophyll and proteins found in thylakoids
electron transport chain
series of electron carrier proteins that shuttle high-energy electrons during ATP generating reactions
cluster of proteins that span the thylakoid membrane and allows hydrogen ions (H+) to pass through it
during the light-independent reactions, ATP, and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions are used to produce high-energy sugars
what happens during the light-independent reactions?
the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar
among the most important factors that affect photosynthesis are temperature, light intensity, and the availability of water
what are factors that affect photosynthesis?
organisms get the energy they need from food
where do organisms get energy?
the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree celcius
cellular respiration is the process that releases energy from food in the presence of oxygen
what is cellular respiration?
process that releases energy from food in the presence of oxygen
cellular respiration equation
O2+C6H12O6 -> CO2+H2O+energy
process that requires oxygen
process that does not require oxygen
photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and cellular respiration puts it back. photosynthesis releases oxygen into the atmosphere, and cellular respiration uses that oxygen to release energy from food
what is the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular repiration
during glycosis one molecule, a 6-carbon, its transformed into two molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon compound
what happens during the process of glycosis?
first set of reactions in cellular respiration during which one molecule of glycosis, a 6-carbon compound, is transformed into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon compound
second stage of cellular respiration in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide into a series of energy-extracting reactions
(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) electron carrier involved in glycosis
during the Krebs cycle, pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
what happens in the Krebs cycle?
innermost compartment of the mitochondrion
the electron chain uses high-energy electrons from glycosis and the Krebs cycle to convert ADP to ATP
how does the electron transport chain use high-energy electrons from glycosis and the Krebs cycle?
together, glycosis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain release about 36 of ATP per molecule of glucose
how much energy does cellular respiration generate?
in the absence of oxygen, fermentation releases energy from food molecules by producing ATP
how do organisms generate energy when oxygen is not available?
process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
for short, quick bursts of energy, the body uses ATP already in muscles as well as ATP made by lactic acid. for excercises longer than 90 seconds, cellular respiration is the only way to continue generating a supply of ATP
how does the body produce ATP during different stages of excercise
the larger a cell becomes, the more demands the cell places in its DNA. In addition, a larger cell is less efficient in moving nutrients and waste materials across its cell membrane
what are some of the difficulties a cell faces as it increases in size?
the production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent is known as asexual reproduction. offspring produced by sexual production inherit some of their genetic information from each parent
how do asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction compare?
sexual reproduction vs asexual reproduction
•produces genetically diverse offspring
•genetic diversity helps ensure survival of species - allows for a quick adjustments to changes
•produces genetically identical offspring
•reproduction is quick and produces large numbers of offspring
chromosomes make it possible to separate DNA precisely during cell division
what is the role of chromosomes in cell division?
package of DNA that contains genetic information that is passed on from one generation to the next
substance found in eukaryotic chromosomes that consists of DNA coiled tightly around histones
during the cell
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