Terms in this set (...)

Multiple exemplar training
When you are taught multiple different examples of a concept
Study terms in this format
1. Term- define
2. Repeat Definition - term
3. Repeat Term- give an example
4. Give an example- repeat term
Anything a person says or does, also know as a response.

Ex. Can i have some water please?, hitting someone, crying, playing with a toy, reading a book etc.
Any object or event that occurs in a person's environment.
- For something to count as a stimulus that person has to have seen, heard, touched, tasted or smelled that object or event.

Ex. The sight of an apple, a loud noise, the smell of cookies, someone saying "Hi" to you
A stimulus that occurred in a person's environment immediately preceding a behavior.

Ex. Mother asks child to turn off television (antecedent) Child responds by crying (behavior)
A stimulus that occurred in a person's environment immediately following a behavior/ whatever happened immediately after the behavior. Doesn't have to be a punishment.

Ex. a child has a tantrum and gets candy
The tantrum is the behavior and the candy is the CONSEQUENCE
Positive Reinforcement
A consequence of a behavior that involves adding something to the person's environment.

Ex. Learner says "Hug please" gets a hug and therefore he is more likely to say "hug please" the next time he wants a hug.
Saying hug please is the behavior and getting a hug is the P-Reinforcement.
Negative (something removed) Reinforcement
NOT NEGATIVE. A consequence of a behavior that involves removing/postponing something from a person's environment which increases the future strength of the behavior.

Ex. a child says break please and teacher removes homework from his desk. Next time he is more likely to say break please when he wants a break.
Motivating Operation
An antecedent that changes the potency of a consequence as a reinforcer. Divided into 2 types: Establishing operation and Abolishing Operation:

Establishing: Increase the potency of the consequence as a reinforcer and temporarily evokes behavior. Ex. If child is hungry, food becomes a stronger reinforcer and she is likely to ask for food or do other behaviors that have gotten her food in the past.

Abolishing: Decrease the potency of a consequence as a reinforcer and temporarily suppresses behavior. Ex. a child just had a glass of water, water is no longer a powerful reinforcer at the moment and she is more likely to not ask for water. But later on is she asks for water again, that is an establishing operation.
No longer providing reinforcement for a behavior that used to be reinforced, resulting in a decrease of that behavior in the future.
Stimulus Control
When a behavior is reinforced in the presence of a particular antecedent stimulus and is not reinforced in the absence of that stimulus.

Ex. A child only gets candy when he asks grandma for candy, then the child will ask for candy everytime grandma comes over. ( Reinforces the behavior of asking for candy by giving the child candy).
Discriminative Stimulus
Signals the availability of a particular reinforcer for a particular behavior known as SD that has been reinforced in the past . Ex. the grandmas is the SD for the behavior of asking for candy
The spreading of the effects of the intervention to outside of the intervention.
an extra antecedent stimulus that helps a person engage in a particular behavior, Hints and cues are examples of prompts. Ex. Asking what is your name and modeling the client's name.
prompts are extra help that you want to fade out as soon a possible so learners don't become dependent on them.
Intermittent schedules of reinforcement
Fixed Ratio (FR)- Reinforcer is delivered after a set number of responses. ( every two bites of broccoli results in a french fry)
Variable Ratio (VR) - Reinforcer is delivered after an average number of occurrences of the target response. (on average every 3 bites results in a french fry)
Fixed Interval (FI) - When the behavior is reinforced after an established fixed amount of time since the last reinforcer was given. (need to wait at least 5 minutes since the last break from giving another break; after playing for at least 5 min mommy will come and play with sally)
Variable Interval (VI) - Ex. After playing between 3 and 7 minutes, reinforcer is delivered; mommy will come and play)
When client has recently had the reinforced and it becomes less powerfrul
Motivating Operations
Abolishing- antecedents that decrease the potency of a reinforcer
Establishing- Increase the potency of a reinforcer; hungry then food is establishing
Mastery Criteria
The rule for who to decide when a particular skill or phase of a skill acquisition program is mastered based on the accuracy of the learner's perfromance.
Discrete Trial Training
When learning trials are presented in quick succession, with a clear beginning and end to each trial. It's more structured, back and forth, the reinforcers can be unrelated to what's being taught.

three parts to DTT
1. The instruction delivered by the technician
2. The learner's response
3. The consequence delivered by the technician
used for language skills, letters, numbers, shapes, colors
Naturalistic teaching procedures
Uses reinforcers that are related to the teaching interaction
Engages the learner in arranged environment
Ensures that the learner can demonstrate a skill in their environment.
Total Task Presentation
Presenting the entire task to the learner and having her complete all the steps until the chain in learned and until she makes an error to prompt her.
Backward chaining-
Prompting the child every step of the chain except for the last step
Forward Chaning
Prompting every step except for the first step of the chain.
Discrimination Training
The ability of a learner the understand the difference between two or more things.
Stimulus Control
When a particular behavior has been reinforced only in the presence of a particular stimulus or instruction, we say that stimulus now has stimulus control over that behavior.

Ex. a child only tantrums around grandma and grandma gives child a hug and child stops tantruming. She has stimulus control over the child.
Something that you do to help the learner do something they otherwise wouldn't do.
Physical prompt- providing physical assistance in order to help the learner do the expected behavior.
Partial physical prompt- Less than the full amount of assistance i provided.
Model Prompt
You demonstrate the desired response.
Ex. You show the learner how to wave by doing it yourself.
Verbal Prompt
Words or instructions to assist the learner in demonstrating a correct response.
Gestrual Prompt
Least to Most prompting
Fewer prompts are provided at the beginning and more intrusive prompts are faded in when the learner needs help.
Most to least prompting
You begin teaching interaction by providing a prompt that you are sure is likely to help the learner make the correct response, and then fade those prompts out.
For example "touch tummy" and then physically prompt the child to touch tummy. Next trial, you would use a model prompt and the next trail no prompt.
Prompt Dependance
When a learner continues to need a prompt in order to respond correctly
Transfer stimulus control
From the unwanted prompt to the desired stimulus in the environment.
Also can be used to transfer stimulus control between individuals such as mothers and behavior technicians.
The spreading of effects of training from the training setting or behavior to other settings or behaviors.
Stimulus generalization
Where a particular behavior is trained in the presence of one stimulus to another stimulus that's similar.
Ex. teaching a child to label pictures of apple as apple and then the child is able to label actual apples as apple.
Multiple Exemplar Training
When you teach more than one example of the skill Such as pointing at dogs while on a walk, reading books with dogs in it, watching cartoons with dogs.
When a skill acquisition maintains across time, after a particular skill or challenging behavior is no longer directly being targeted.
Intermittent Reinforcement
Only when some, not all, occurrences of a behavior are reinforced.
Thinning Reinforcement
To gradually change reinforcement schedules so that the frequency, magnitude, and predictability maintains skills.
BIP- Behavior Intervention Plan
A document that describes the procedures you use to help the learner decrease their challenging behaviors and choose more adaptive replacement behavior.

1. Problem behavior + Operational Definiton
2. Aggression
3. Function- The reason the behavior is occurring and continues to occur. ( access to attention, access to tangibles, escape, automatic
4. Escape/avoidance- typically occurs in the home setting during table-top tasks.
5.Antecedent Modifications- Before the target behavior occurs
6. Replacement behaviors- compliance, waiting and mands
7. Consequence
8. Measurement
9. Rate per hour
Attention, Tangible, Escape, Automatic
Functions of behavior
Non-Contingent Reinforcement
A procedure in which reinforcement is given to learner for free according to the passage of time.
Ex. giving a 3 min break every 15 min
High-Probability (High-P)
Low Probability (Low-p)
Behavior Momentum Procedure
involves asking the learner to do several taks that she is likely to comply with (highp)
Differential reinforcement
When you choose to reinforce some behaviors and not others
Differential reinforcement of Alternative Behaviors- DRA
When you reinforce when behavior and place another behavior on extinction
Ex. Talk to learner when she talks politely but do not talk when she has a tantrum.
Differential reinforcement of Incompatible Behaviors
When the alternative behavior is physically incompatible with the challenging behavior.
Ex. reinforce polite requests for attention but do not attend to whining.
Differential reinforcement of Other Behavior
When you only give reinforcement when the target behavior hasn't occured for a specific amount of time.
For example: Absence of whining for parent is reinforced with parent attention.
Documentation and Professional Conduct
Professional Language
Remain professional in all documentation and reporting
Ecological Variables
During session, you will need to record any ecological variables that might be important for staff to know such as lack of sleep and missed medication.
Objective session descriptions
Only note what you observed not guesses.
Mandated reporting
If you suspect that a child is being abused you must report it to the authorities immiedately
Data Storage and Transportation
Data sheets should be taken from their daily locations such as clipboards to their storage locations by the end of the day. Data should not remain in the car
The secured location must be locked and located behind a locked door.
Professional conduct
Role of the RBT
The role of the rbt is to implement behavioral education and treatment plans designed by the BCBA
Stakeholder Communication
Parents, Caregivers, and staff. If a stakeholder asks you questions that are not within your role to answer, politely let the person know that you will ask the supervisor to contact them with the answer.
Professional Boundaries
Multiple relationships should be avoided at all times.
- Avoid friending clients on social media
Client Dignity
It is critical to respect the dignity of those whom you work with,
"fixed-ratio reinforcement schedule of 1" = FR1
with the 1 denoting how many correct responses are necessary to receive reinforcement. This type of reinforcement schedule would be abbreviated into just "FR1" (Fixed Ratio). Within the written discrete trial the consequence for a correct response is abbreviated into the letter "C" and might look like this:
(A) Red and a blue card on the desk in front of Jane. Teacher says "point to _______" (red or blue).
(P) Full gestural prompt.
(B) Jane will point to the correct coloured card.
(C) FR1 praise and token.
Schedule of Reinforcement
The amount or type of reinforcement to be given is called a
When written out the correction is generally abbreviated into "Corr" or sometimes "C2 to denote the fact that it is the "second" possible consequence (the first being the consequence for a correct response).
Inter-Trial Interval
Comes after the consequence; it is an interval that comes between trials and signifies the ending of that trial.
Why are Discrete Trials Scripted?
Discrete trials are defined and scripted to make sure every trial is run the same way.
Essential components of a written behavior reduction plan
The list below outlines the intervention plan elements for behavior required by IDEA for any child with a disability, including autism or asperger syndrome.

Detailed descriptions of the behavior targeted for intervention.
Information about previous interventions, including their range of effectiveness and possible reasons for failure
A clear description of the current intervention strategies and data collection procedures
A list of each team member involved in the plan, including parents and children
Descriptions of the expected behavior changes and measurement procedures
The review schedule for the intervention plan and a description of information sharing options between all team members
Behavior crisis plan measures in case the child's behavior worsens
Additional Elements
Documentation and Reporting
E-Documentation and Reporting
E-01 report other variables that might affect the client (medication/illness/relocation etc)
E-02 Generate objective session notes by describing what occurred during sessions
E-03 effectively communicate with supervisor
E-04 comply with applicable legal, regulatory and workplace reporting requirements (Mandatory abuse/neglect reporting)
E-05 Comply with applicable legal regulatory and workplace requirements for data collection, storage and transportation
shred notes
Lock in cabinet
-Professional conduct and scope of practice
The RBT is a paraprofessional who practices under the close, ongoing supervision of a BCBA, BCaBA, or FL-CBA ("designated RBT supervisor"). The RBT is primarily responsible for the direct implementation of skill-acquisition and behavior-reduction plans developed by the supervisor. The RBT may also collect data and conduct certain types of assessments (e.g., stimulus preference assessments). The RBT does not design intervention or assessment plans. It is the responsibility of the designated RBT supervisor to determine which tasks an RBT may perform as a function of his or her training, experience, and competence. The designated RBT supervisor is ultimately responsible for the work performed by the RBT.

F-02 Respond appropriately to feedback and maintain or improve performance accordingly

F-03 Communicate with stakeholders (family, caregivers, other professionals) as authorized

F-04 maintain professional boundaries (avoid dual relationships, conflicts of interest, social media contacts)

F-05 maintain client dignity
Event Recording
Continuous observation and recording
Clear beginning and end tally marks
How long the behavior lasts from beginning to end
The time that occurs between SD and Response

Example- give child direction-record time-stop time when child does task
Partial interval
Dividing Observation Period into intervals and checking off intervals if the behavior occurs at any point during the interval
Whole Interval
Checking off an interval if a behavior occurs throughout the WHOLE interval
ex. peer participation in a game
Momentary time sampling
Only record a sample of the intervals
Ex. 5 intervals but may only take data on 2 of the 5 intervals
FR- fixed ratio
Reinforcer is only given after each correct response
FI- fixed interval
Reinforcer is for first response to occur after each X minutes
Variable Ratio- VR
Reinforcer is given after an average of responses
Variable Interval- VI
Reinforcer is given for first response after each X minutes on the average
B-04 Assist with functional assessment procedures.
Identify observable/measurable behavior
Create operational definition
Indirect measurement-interviews/observations/abc data
Analyze data
Create hypothesis