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pm Milady Cosmetology chapter 6 glossary

General Anatomy and physiology
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Abductor digiti minimi
muscle that separates the fingers and toes
abductor hallucis
muscle that moves the toes and helps maintain balance while walking and standing
abductors
Muscles that draw a body part such as a finger, arm, or toe away from the midline of the body or of an extremity
adductors
Muscles that draw a body part such as a finger arm or toe inward toward the median axis of the body or or an extremity
adipose tissue
Technical term for fat; gives smoothness and contour to the body
adrenal glands
glands of the endocrine system that secrete about 30 steroid hormones and control metabolic processes of the body, including the fight or flight response
anabolism
constructive metabolism the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones
anatomy
study of human body structures that can be seen with the naked eye and how the body parts are organized; the science of the structure of organisms or of their parts.
angular artery
branch of the facial artery that supplies blood to the side of the nose
anterior auricular artery
branch of the superficial temporal artery that supplies blood to the front part of the ear
anterior tibial artery
One of the popliteal arteries, that supplies blood to the lower leg muscles and to the muscles and skin on the top of the foot and adjacent sides of the first and second toes. This artery continues to the foot where it becomes the dorsalis pedis artery
aorta
the largest artery in the body
arteries
thick walled, muscular, flexible tubes that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the arteriols.
arterioles
small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries
atrium
upper, thin walled chamber of the heart through which blood is pumped to the ventricles. There is a right atrium and a left atrium
auricularis anterior
muscle in front of the ear that draws the ear forward
auricularis posterior
muscle behind the ear that draws the ear backward
auricularis superior
muscle above the ear that draws the ear upward
auriculotemporal nerve
branch of the fifth cranial nerve that affects the external ear and skin above the temple, up to the top of the skull
autonomic nervous system
abbreviated ANS; the part of the nervous system that controls the involuntary muscles; regulates the action of the smooth muscles, glands blood vessels and breathing
axon
the extension of a neuron through which impulses are sent away from the body to other neurons, glands or muscles
axon terminal
the extension of a neuron through which impulses are sent away from the body to other neurons, glands or muscles
belly
middle part of the muscle
bicep
muscles that produces the contour of the front and inner side of the upper arm; lifts the forearm and flexes the elbow
blood
nutritive fluid circulating through the circulatory system (heart and blood vessels) to supply oxygen and nutrients to cells and tissues and to remove carbon dioxide and waste from them
blood vessels
tube like structures that include arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins
body system
also known as systems: groups of body organ acting together to perform one or more functions. The human body is composed of 11 major systems
brain
part of the central nervous system contained in the cranium; largest and most complex nerve tissue an controls sensation, muscles, activity or glands and the power to think, sense and feel
buccal nerve
branch of the seventh cranial nerve that affects the muscles of the mouth
bucccinator muscle
thin, flat muscle of the cheek between the upper and lower jaw that compresses the cheeks and expels air between the lips
capillaries
tiny, thin walled blood vessels that connect the smaller arteries to the venules. Capillaries bring nutrients to the cells and carry away waste materials
cardiac muscle
the involuntary muscle that is the heart. this type of muscle is not found in any other part of the body
carpus
also known as wrist flexible joint composed of a group of eight small irregular bones held together by ligaments
catabolism
the phase of metabolism that involves the breaking down of complex compounds within the cells into smaller ones. This process releases energy that has been stored
cell membrane
cell part that encloses the protoplasm and permits soluble substances to enter and leave the cell
cells
basic units of all living things, from bacteria to plants to animals, including humanbeings
central nervous system
abbreviated CNS; consists of the brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves and cranial nerves
centrioles
structures in a cell near the nucleus that move to each side during the mitosis process to help divide the cell
cervical cutaneous nerve
cervical nerve located at the side of the neck; afffects the front and sides of the neck as far down as the breast bone
cervical nerves
branches of the 7th cranial nerve; originate at the spinal cord and affect the side of the neck and the platysma muscle
cervical vertebrae
The seven bones of the top part of the vertebral column, located in the neck region
circulatory system
also know as cardiovascular system or vascular system; body system that controls the steady circulation of the blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels
clavicle
also known as collarbone; bone that joins the sternum and scapula
common carotid artery
main arteries that supply blood to the head, face and neck
common peroneal nerve
a division of the sciatic nerve that extends from behind the knee to wind around the head of the fibula to the front of the leg where it divides into two branches.
connective tissue
fibrous tissue that binds together, protects and supports the various pars of the body. Examples of connective tissue are bone, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, blood, lymph and fat
corrugator muscle
muscle located beneath the frontalis and orbicularis oculi muscles that draws the eyebrow down and wrinkles the forehead vertically
cranium
an oval bony case that protects the brain
cytoplasm
the protoplasm of a cell, except for the protoplasm in the nucleus, that surrounds the nucleus; the watery fluid that cells need for growth, reproduction and self repair
deep peroneal nerve
also know as anterior tibial nerve; extends down the front of the leg, behind the muscles. It supplies impulses to these muscles and also to the muscles and skin on the top of the foot and adjacent sides of the first and second toes
deltoid
large triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint that allows the arm to extend outward and to the side of the body
dendrites
tree like branching of nerve fibers extending from the nerve cell; carry impulses toward the cell and receive impulses from other neurons
depressor labii inferior muscle
also know as quadratus muscle; muscle surrounding the lower lip; lowers the lower lip and draws it to one side, as in expressing sarcasm
diaphragm
muscular wall that separates the thorax from the abdominal region and helps control breathing
digestive enzymes
Chemicals that change certain types of food into a soluble (capable of being dissolved) form that can be used by the body
digestive system
also known as gastrointestinal system; body system that is responsible for breaking down foods in to nutrients and wastes; consists of the mouth stomach intestines salivary and gastric glands and other organs
digital nerve
sensory motor nerve that with its branches supplies impulses to the fingers
dorsal nerve
also know as dorsal cutaneous nerve; a nerve that extends up from the toes and foot, just under the skin supplying impulses to toes and foot as well as the muscles and skin of the leg where it is becomes the superficial peroneal nerve
dorsalis pedis artery
artery that supplies blood to the foot
eleventh cranial nerve
also known as accessory nerve; a mothor nerve that controls the motion of the neck and shoulder muscles
endocrine glands
also known as ductless glands; glands such as the thyroid and pituitary gland that release hormonal secretions directly in to the bloodstream
endocrine system
body system consisting of a group of specialized glands that affect the growth, development, sexual functions and health of the entire body
epicranial aponeurosis
tendon that connects the occipitalis and frontalis muscles
epicranius
also known as occipitofrontalis; the broad muscle that covers the top of the skull and consists of the occipitalis and frontalis
epithelial tissue
protective covering on body surfaces such as skin mucous membranes the tissue inside the mouth the lining of the heart, digestive and respiratory organs and the glands
ethmoid bone
light spongy bone between the eye sockets;forms part of the nasal cavities
excretory system
body system that consists of a group of organs including the kidneys, liver, skin, large intestine and lungs that are responsible for purifying the body by eliminating waste matter
exhalation
breathing outward; expelling carbon dioxide (collected from the blood) from the lungs
exocrine glands
also known as duct glands; produce a substance that travels through small tube like ducts sweat glands and oil glands of the skin belong to this group
extensor digitorum longus
muscle that bends the foot up and extends the toes
extensor hallucis longus
muscle tht extends the big toe and flexes the foot
extensors
muscles that straighten the wrist, hand and fingers to forma straight line
external carotid artery
artery that supplies blood to the anterior (front) parts of the scalp, ear, face, neck and sides of the head
external jugular vein
vein located at the side of the neck that carries blood returning to the heart from the head, face and neck
eyes
body organs that control the body's vision
facial artery
also known as external maxillary artery; branch of the external carotid artery that supplies blood to the lower region of the face, mouth and nose
facial skeleton
framework of the face composed of 14 bones
femur
heavy long bone that forms the leg above the knee
fibula
smaller of the twobones that form the leg below the knee. The fibula may be visulaized as a bump on the little toe side of the ankle
fifth cranial nerve
also known as trifacial nerve of trigeminal nerve; the chief sensory nerve of the face that serves as the motor nerve of the muscles that control chewing
flexor digiti minimi
muscle that moves the little toe
flexor digitorum brevis
muscle that moves the toes and helps maintain
balance while walking and standing
flexor
extensor muscle of the wrist involved in flexing the wrist
frontal artery
branch of the superficial temporal artery that supplies blood to the forehead and upper eyelids
frontal bone
bone that forms the forehead
frontalis
front protion of the epicranius; muscle of the scalp that raises the eyebrows, draws the scalp forward and causes wrinkles across the forehead
gastrocnemius
muscle attached to the lower rear surface of the heel and pulls the foot down
glands
organs that remove and release certain elements from the blood to convert them into new compounds
greater auricular nerve
cervical nerve that is located at the side of the neck; affects the face, ears, neck and parotid gland
greater occipital nerve
cervical nerve that is located in the back of the head
heart
muscular, cone shaped organ that keeps the blood moving within the circulatory system
hemoglobin
complex iron protein in red blood cells that binds to oxygen; gives blood color
histology
also known as microscopic anatomy; the study of tiny structures found in living tissues
hormones
secretions, such as insulin, adrenaline and estrogen, that stimulate functional activity or other secretions in the body. Hormone influence the welfare of the entire body
humerus
uppermost and largest bone in the arm, extending from the elbow to the shoudler
hyoid bone
U shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue and its muscles
inferior labial artery
branch of the facial artery that supplies blood to the lower lip
infraorbital artery
branch of the internal carotid artery that supplies blood to the muscles of the eye
infraorbital nerve
branch of the fifth cranial nerve that affects the skin of the lower eyelid, side of the nose, upper lip and mouth.
infratrochlear nerve
branch of the fifth cranial nerve that affects the membrane and skin of the nose
inhalation
breathing in through the nose and mouth
insertion
the movable part of the muscle that is farthest from the skeleton
integumentary system
body system that consists of skin and its accessory organs, such as the oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair and nails; serves as a protective covering and helps regulate the body's temperature
internal carotid artery
artery that supplies blood to the brain, eyes, eyelids, forehead, nose and internal ear
internal jugular vein
vein loacated at the side of the neck to collect blood from the brain and parts of the face and neck
interstitial fluid
blood plasma found in the spaces between tissue cells
intestines
body organ that digests food, along with the stomach
joint
connection between two or more bones of the skeleton
kidneys
body organs that excrete water and waste products
lacrimal bones
small,thin bones located at the frontinner wall of the orbits (eye sockets)
latissimus dorsi
large, flat, triangular muscle covering the lower back
levator labii superioris muscle
also known as quadratus abii superioris muscle; muscle surrounding the upper lip; elevates the upper lip and dilates the nostrils, as in expressing distaste
liver
body organ that removes waste created by digestion
lungs
spongy tissues composed of microscopic cells in which inhaled air is exchanged for carbon dioxide during one breathing cycle; organs of respiration
lymph
clear fluid that circulates in the lymph space (lymphatics) of the body. Lymph helps carry wastes and impurities away from the cells before it is routed back to the circulatory system
lymph capillaries
blind end tubes that are the origin of lymphatic vessels
lymph nodes
gland like structures found inside lymphatic vessels; filter the lymphatic vessels and help fight infection
lymphatic/immune system
body system that consists of lymph, lymph nodes, the thymus gland, the spleen, and lymph vessels. It carries waste and impurities away from the cells and protects the body from disease by developing immunities and destroying disease causing mocroorganisms
mandible
lower jawbone; largest and strongest bone of the face
mandibular nerve
branch of the fifth cranial nerve that affects the muscles of the chin, lower lip and external ear
marginal mandibular nerve
branch of the 7th cranial nerve that affects the muscles of the chin and lower lip
masseter
muscles that coordinate with the temporalis and pterygoid muscles to open and close the mouth and bring the jaw forward; sometimes referred to as chewing
maxillae (singular maxilla)
bones of the upper jaw
maxillary nerve
branch of the 5th cranial nerve that supplies impulses to the upper part of the face
median nerve
sensory motor nerve that is smaller than the ulner and radial nerves and that, with its branches, supplies the arm and hand
mental nerve
branch of the 5th cranial nerve that affects the skin of the lower lip and chin
mentalis muscle
muscle that elevates the lower lip and raises and wrinkles skin of the chin
metabolism
chemical process that takes place in living organisms, through which the cells are nourished and carryout their activities; metabolism has two phases: anabolism and catabolism
metacarpus
bones of the palm of the hand: parts of the hand containing five bones between the carpus and phalanges
metatarsal
one of three subdivisions of the foot; long and slender bones, similar to the metacarpal bones of the hand . The other two subdivisions are the tarsal and phalanges
middle temporal artery
branch of the superficial temporal artery that supplies blood to the temples
mitosis
usual process of cell reproduction of of human tissues that occurs when the cell divides into two identical cells called daughter cells
mitral valve
also known as bucuspid valve; the valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle of the heart
motor nerves
also know as efferent nerves; carry impulses from the brain to the muscles or glands
muscle tissue
tissue that contracts and moves various parts of the body
muscular system
body system that covers, shapes and holds the skeleton system in place; muscular system contracts and moves various parts of the body
myology
study of nature, structure, function and disease of the muscles
nasal bones
bones that form the bridge of the nose
nasal nerve
branch of the 5th cranial nerve that affects the point and lower side of the nose
nerve tissue
tissue that carries messages to and from the brain and controls and coordinates all bodily functions
nerves
whitish cords made up of bundles of nerve fibers held together by connective tissue through which impulses are transmitted
nervous system
body system that consists of the brain, spinal cord and nerves; controls and coordinates all other systems of the body and makes them work harmoniously and efficiently
neurology
scientific study of the structure, function, and pathology of the nervous system
neuron
also know as nerve cell; primary strucural unit of the nervous system, consists of the cell body, nucleus, dendrites and axon
nonstriated muscles
also known as smooth muscles; these muscles are involuntary and function automatically without conscious will
nucleus
dense, active protoplasm found in the center of the cell; plays an important part in cell reproduction and metabolism
occipital artery
branch of the external carotid artery that supplies blood to the skin and muscles of the sclp and back of the head up to the crown
occipital bone
hindmost bone of the skull, below the parietal bones; forms the back of the skull above the nape
occipitalis
back portion of the epicranius; muscle that draws the scalp backward
-ology
its a word ending; means the study of
ophthalmic nerve
branch of the 5th cranial nerve that supplies impulses to the skin of the forehead, upper eyelids, and interior portion of the scalp, orbit, eyeball and nasal passage
orbicularis oculi muscle
ring muscle of the eye socket; enables you to close your eyes
orbicularis oris muscle
flat band of muscle around the upper and lower lips that compresses, contracts, puckers and wrinkles the lips
organs
structures composed of specialized tissues designed to perform specific functions in plants and animals
origin
part of the muscle that does not move; attached closest to the skeleton
os
bone
osteology
the study of anatomy structure and function of the bones
ovaries
female sexual glands of the endocrine system that function in reproduction as well as determining female sexual characteristics
pancreas
gland of the endocrine system that secretes enzyme producing cells that are responsible for digesting carbohydrates, proteins and fats
parathyroid glands
glands of the endocrine system that regulate blood calcium and phosphorus levels so that the nervous and muscular systems can function properly
parietal artery
branch of the superficial temporal artery that supplies blood to the side and crown of the head
parietal bones
bones that form the sides and top of the cranium
patella
also known as accessory bone of kneecap, forms the kneecap joint
pectoralis major
muscles of the chest that assist theswinging movements of the arm
pectoralis minor
muscles of the chest that assist theswinging movements of the arm
pericardium
double layered membranous sac enclosing the heart; made of epithelial tissue
peripheral nervous system
abbreviated PNS; system of nerves that connects the peripheral parts of the body to the central nervous system; it has both sensory and motor nerves
peroneus brevis
muscle that originates on the lower surface of the fibula; bends the foot down and out
peroneus longus
muscle that covers the outer side of the calf; inverts the foot and tuns it outward
phalanges
also known as digits; bones of the fingers or toes; one of the three subdivisions of the foot. The other two subdivisions are the tarsal and metatarsal
physiology
study of the functions and activities performed by the body's structures
pineal gland
the most complex organ of the endocrines system. It affects almost every physiologic process of the body; growth, blood pressure, contractions during childbirth, breast milk production, sexual organ functions in both women and men, thyroid gland function, and the conversion of food into energy (metabolism)
plasma
fluid part of the blood in which the red and white blood cells and platelets flow
platelets
contribute to the blood clotting process, which stops bleeding: platelets are much smaller than red blood cells
platysma muscle
broad muscle extending from the chest and shoulder muscles to the side of the chin; responsible for lowering the lower jaw and lip
popliteal artery
artery that supplies blood to the foot; divides into two separate arteries known as the anterior tibial artery and the posterior tibial artery
posterior auricular artery
branch of the external carotid artery that supplies blood to the scalp, the area behind and above the ear, and the skin behind the ear
posterior auricular nerve
branch of the seventh cranial nerve that affects the muscles behind the ear at the base of the skull
posterior tibial artery
one of the popliteal arteries (the other is the anterior tibial artery) that supplies blood to the ankle and the back of the lower leg
procerus muscle
muscle that covers the bridge of the nose, lowers the eyebrows and causes wrinkles across the bridge of the nose.
pronator
muscle that turns the hand inward so that the palm faces downward.
protoplasm
colorless jelly like substance found inside cells in which food elements such as protein fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts and water are present
pulmonary circulation
the system that sends the blood from the heart to the lungs to be purified, then back to the heart again
radial artery
artery, along with numerous branches that supplies blood to the thumb side of that arm and the back of the hand; supplies blood to the muscles of the skin, hands, fingers, wrist, elbow and forearm
radial nerve
sensory motor nerve that with its branches supplies the thumb side of the arm and back of the hand
radius
smaller bone in the forearm (lower arm) on the same side ads the thumb
red blood cells
blood cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to the body cells and transport carbon dioxide from the cells back to the lungs
reflex
automatic reaction to a stimulus that involves the movement of an impulse from a sensory receptor along the sensory nerve to the spinal cord
reproductive system
body system that includes the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina in the female and the testes, prostate gland, penis and urethra in the male. This system performs the function of producing offspring and passing on the genetic code from one generation to another
respiration
act of breathing; the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the lungs and within each cell
respiratory system
body system consisting of the lungs and air passages; enables respiration (breathing), supplying the body with oxygen and eliminating carbon dioxide
ribs
twelve pairs of bones forming the wall of the thorax
risorius muscle
muscle of the mouth that draws the corner of the mouth out and back, as in grinning
saphenous nerve
nerve of the leg that supplies impulses to the skin of the inner side of the leg and foot
scapula
also known as shoulder blade; large, flat, triangular bone of the shoulder. There are two scapulas
sciatic nerve
largest and longest nerve in the body
sensory nerves
also know as afferent nerves; carry impulses or messages from the sense organs to the brain, where sensations of touch, cold, heat, sight, hearing, taste, smell, pain, and pressure are experienced
serratus anterior
muscle of the chest that assists in breathing and in raising the arm
seventh cranial nerve
also known as facial nerve; chief motor nerve of the face. Its divisions and their branches supply and control all the muscles of the facial expression
skeletal system
forms the physical foundation of the body, composed of 206 bones that vary in size and shape and are connected by movable and immovable joints
skin
body organ that covers the body and is the external protective coating
skull
skeleton of the head; divided into tow parts; cranium and facial skeleton
smaller occipital nerve
also known as lesser occipital nerve; cervical nerve located at the base of the skull, affects the scalp and muscles behind the ear
soleus
muscle that originates at the upper portion of the fibula and bends the foot down
sphenoid bone
bone that joins all of the bones of the cranium together
spinal cord
portion or the central nervous system that originates in the brain and extends down to the lower extremity or the trunk. It is protected by the spinal column
sternocleido mastoideus
muscle of the neck that lowers and rotates the head
sternum
also know as breastbone; flat bone that forms the ventral (front) support of the ribs
stomach
body organ that digests food, along with the intestines
striated muscles
also known as skeletal muscles; muscles that are attached to the bones and that are voluntary or are consciously controlled
submental artery
branch of the facial artery that supplies blood to the chin an lower lip
superficial peroneal nerve
also known as musculocutaneous nerve; extends down the leg, just under the skin, supplying impulses to the muscles and the skin of the leg, as well as to the skin and toes on the top of the foot, where it becomes the dorsal nerve.
superior temporal artery
a continuation of the external carotid nerve artery; supplies blood to the muscles of the front side and top of the head.
supinator
muscle of the forearm that rotates the radius outward and the palm upward.
supraorbital artery
branch of the internal carotid artery that supplies blood to the upper eyelid and forehead
supraorbital nerve
branch of the fifth cranial nerve that affects the skin between the forehead, scalp, eyebrow and upper eyelid
supratrochlear nerve
branch of the fifth cranial nerve that affects the skin between the eyes and upper side of the nose
sural nerve
nerve or the lower left leg that supplies impulses to the skin on the outer side and back of the foot and leg
systemic circulation
also know as general circulation; system that carries the blood from the heart throughout the body and back to the heart
talus
also known as ankle bone; on of three bones that comprise the ankle joint. The other two bonesare the tibia and fibula
tarsal
on e of three subdivisions of the foot. There are seven bones- talus, calcaneus, navicular, three cuneiform bones and the cuboid. The other two subdivisions are the metatarsal and the phalanges
temporal bones
bones that form the sides of the head in the ear region
temporal nerve
branch of the seventh cranial nerve that affects the muscles of the temple, side of the borehead, eyebrow, eyelid and upper part of the cheek
temporalis
Muscle that coordinate with the masseter and the pterygoid muscles to open and close the mouth and bring the jaw forward; sometimes referred to as chewing muscles
testes (singular: testicle)
male sexual glands of the endocrine system that function in reproduction, as well as determining male sexual characteristics
thorax
also know as chest or pulmonary trunk consists of the sternum, ribs, and thoracic vertebrae; elastic, bony cage that serves as a protective framework for the heart
thyroid gland
gland of the endocrine system that controls how quickly the body burns energy (metabolism), makes proteins, and how sensitive the body should be to other hormones
tibia
larger of the two bones that form the leg below the knee. The tibia may be visualized as a bump on the big toe side of the ankle
tibial nerve
a division of the sciatic nerve that passes behind the knee. It subdivides and supplies impulses to the knee, the muscles of the calf, the skin of the leg, and the sole , heel, and underside of the toes
tibialis anterior
muscle that covers the front of the shin;bends the foot upward and inward
tissue
collection of similar cells that perform a particular function
transverse facial artery
branch of the superficial temporal artery that supplies blood to the skin and masseter muscle
trapezius
muscle that covers the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back; rotates and controls swinging movements of the arm
triangularis muscle
muscle extending along side the chin that pulls down the corner of the mouth
tricep
large muscle that covers the entire back of the upper arm and extends the forearm
tricuspid valve
valve between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart
ulna
inner ad larger bone in the forearm (lower arm), attached to the wrist and located on the side of the little finger
ulnar artery
artery, along with numerous branches, that supplies blood to the little finger side of the arm and palm of the hand
ulnar nerve
sensory motor nerve that, with its branches, affects the little finger side of the arm and palm of the hand
valves
structures of the heart that temporarily close a passage or permit blood flow in only one direction
veins
thin walled blood vessels that are less elastic than arteries; veins contain cup like valves that keep blood flowing in one direction to the heart and prevent blood from flowing backward
ventricle
a lower, thick walled chamber of the heart that receives blood pumped from the atrium. There is a right ventricle and a left ventricle
venules
small vessels that connect the capillaries to the veins. They collect blood from the capillaries and drain it into veins
white blood cells
also know as white corpuscles or leukocytes; blood cells that perform the function of destroying disease causing bacteria
zygomatic bones
also know as malar bones or cheekbones; bones that form the prominence of the cheeks
zygomatic nerve
branch of the fifth and seventh cranial nerves that affects the muscles of the upper part of the cheek
zygomaticus major muscles
muscles on both sides of the face that extend from the zygomatic bone to the angle of the mouth. These muscles pull the mouth backward, upward, and outward as when you are laughing smiling
zygomaticus minor muscles
muscles on both sides of the face that extend from the zygomatic bone to the upper lips. these muscles pull the upper lip backward, upward and outward as when you are smiling