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General Anatomy and physiology

Abductor digiti minimi

muscle that separates the fingers and toes

abductor hallucis

muscle that moves the toes and helps maintain balance while walking and standing


Muscles that draw a body part such as a finger, arm, or toe away from the midline of the body or of an extremity


Muscles that draw a body part such as a finger arm or toe inward toward the median axis of the body or or an extremity

adipose tissue

Technical term for fat; gives smoothness and contour to the body

adrenal glands

glands of the endocrine system that secrete about 30 steroid hormones and control metabolic processes of the body, including the fight or flight response


constructive metabolism the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones


study of human body structures that can be seen with the naked eye and how the body parts are organized; the science of the structure of organisms or of their parts.

angular artery

branch of the facial artery that supplies blood to the side of the nose

anterior auricular artery

branch of the superficial temporal artery that supplies blood to the front part of the ear

anterior tibial artery

One of the popliteal arteries, that supplies blood to the lower leg muscles and to the muscles and skin on the top of the foot and adjacent sides of the first and second toes. This artery continues to the foot where it becomes the dorsalis pedis artery


the largest artery in the body


thick walled, muscular, flexible tubes that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the arteriols.


small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries


upper, thin walled chamber of the heart through which blood is pumped to the ventricles. There is a right atrium and a left atrium

auricularis anterior

muscle in front of the ear that draws the ear forward

auricularis posterior

muscle behind the ear that draws the ear backward

auricularis superior

muscle above the ear that draws the ear upward

auriculotemporal nerve

branch of the fifth cranial nerve that affects the external ear and skin above the temple, up to the top of the skull

autonomic nervous system

abbreviated ANS; the part of the nervous system that controls the involuntary muscles; regulates the action of the smooth muscles, glands blood vessels and breathing


the extension of a neuron through which impulses are sent away from the body to other neurons, glands or muscles

axon terminal

the extension of a neuron through which impulses are sent away from the body to other neurons, glands or muscles


middle part of the muscle


muscles that produces the contour of the front and inner side of the upper arm; lifts the forearm and flexes the elbow


nutritive fluid circulating through the circulatory system (heart and blood vessels) to supply oxygen and nutrients to cells and tissues and to remove carbon dioxide and waste from them

blood vessels

tube like structures that include arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins

body system

also known as systems: groups of body organ acting together to perform one or more functions. The human body is composed of 11 major systems


part of the central nervous system contained in the cranium; largest and most complex nerve tissue an controls sensation, muscles, activity or glands and the power to think, sense and feel

buccal nerve

branch of the seventh cranial nerve that affects the muscles of the mouth

bucccinator muscle

thin, flat muscle of the cheek between the upper and lower jaw that compresses the cheeks and expels air between the lips


tiny, thin walled blood vessels that connect the smaller arteries to the venules. Capillaries bring nutrients to the cells and carry away waste materials

cardiac muscle

the involuntary muscle that is the heart. this type of muscle is not found in any other part of the body


also known as wrist flexible joint composed of a group of eight small irregular bones held together by ligaments


the phase of metabolism that involves the breaking down of complex compounds within the cells into smaller ones. This process releases energy that has been stored

cell membrane

cell part that encloses the protoplasm and permits soluble substances to enter and leave the cell


basic units of all living things, from bacteria to plants to animals, including humanbeings

central nervous system

abbreviated CNS; consists of the brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves and cranial nerves


structures in a cell near the nucleus that move to each side during the mitosis process to help divide the cell

cervical cutaneous nerve

cervical nerve located at the side of the neck; afffects the front and sides of the neck as far down as the breast bone

cervical nerves

branches of the 7th cranial nerve; originate at the spinal cord and affect the side of the neck and the platysma muscle

cervical vertebrae

The seven bones of the top part of the vertebral column, located in the neck region

circulatory system

also know as cardiovascular system or vascular system; body system that controls the steady circulation of the blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels


also known as collarbone; bone that joins the sternum and scapula

common carotid artery

main arteries that supply blood to the head, face and neck

common peroneal nerve

a division of the sciatic nerve that extends from behind the knee to wind around the head of the fibula to the front of the leg where it divides into two branches.

connective tissue

fibrous tissue that binds together, protects and supports the various pars of the body. Examples of connective tissue are bone, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, blood, lymph and fat

corrugator muscle

muscle located beneath the frontalis and orbicularis oculi muscles that draws the eyebrow down and wrinkles the forehead vertically


an oval bony case that protects the brain


the protoplasm of a cell, except for the protoplasm in the nucleus, that surrounds the nucleus; the watery fluid that cells need for growth, reproduction and self repair

deep peroneal nerve

also know as anterior tibial nerve; extends down the front of the leg, behind the muscles. It supplies impulses to these muscles and also to the muscles and skin on the top of the foot and adjacent sides of the first and second toes


large triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint that allows the arm to extend outward and to the side of the body


tree like branching of nerve fibers extending from the nerve cell; carry impulses toward the cell and receive impulses from other neurons

depressor labii inferior muscle

also know as quadratus muscle; muscle surrounding the lower lip; lowers the lower lip and draws it to one side, as in expressing sarcasm


muscular wall that separates the thorax from the abdominal region and helps control breathing

digestive enzymes

Chemicals that change certain types of food into a soluble (capable of being dissolved) form that can be used by the body

digestive system

also known as gastrointestinal system; body system that is responsible for breaking down foods in to nutrients and wastes; consists of the mouth stomach intestines salivary and gastric glands and other organs

digital nerve

sensory motor nerve that with its branches supplies impulses to the fingers

dorsal nerve

also know as dorsal cutaneous nerve; a nerve that extends up from the toes and foot, just under the skin supplying impulses to toes and foot as well as the muscles and skin of the leg where it is becomes the superficial peroneal nerve

dorsalis pedis artery

artery that supplies blood to the foot

eleventh cranial nerve

also known as accessory nerve; a mothor nerve that controls the motion of the neck and shoulder muscles

endocrine glands

also known as ductless glands; glands such as the thyroid and pituitary gland that release hormonal secretions directly in to the bloodstream

endocrine system

body system consisting of a group of specialized glands that affect the growth, development, sexual functions and health of the entire body

epicranial aponeurosis

tendon that connects the occipitalis and frontalis muscles


also known as occipitofrontalis; the broad muscle that covers the top of the skull and consists of the occipitalis and frontalis

epithelial tissue

protective covering on body surfaces such as skin mucous membranes the tissue inside the mouth the lining of the heart, digestive and respiratory organs and the glands

ethmoid bone

light spongy bone between the eye sockets;forms part of the nasal cavities

excretory system

body system that consists of a group of organs including the kidneys, liver, skin, large intestine and lungs that are responsible for purifying the body by eliminating waste matter


breathing outward; expelling carbon dioxide (collected from the blood) from the lungs

exocrine glands

also known as duct glands; produce a substance that travels through small tube like ducts sweat glands and oil glands of the skin belong to this group

extensor digitorum longus

muscle that bends the foot up and extends the toes

extensor hallucis longus

muscle tht extends the big toe and flexes the foot


muscles that straighten the wrist, hand and fingers to forma straight line

external carotid artery

artery that supplies blood to the anterior (front) parts of the scalp, ear, face, neck and sides of the head

external jugular vein

vein located at the side of the neck that carries blood returning to the heart from the head, face and neck


body organs that control the body's vision

facial artery

also known as external maxillary artery; branch of the external carotid artery that supplies blood to the lower region of the face, mouth and nose

facial skeleton

framework of the face composed of 14 bones


heavy long bone that forms the leg above the knee


smaller of the twobones that form the leg below the knee. The fibula may be visulaized as a bump on the little toe side of the ankle

fifth cranial nerve

also known as trifacial nerve of trigeminal nerve; the chief sensory nerve of the face that serves as the motor nerve of the muscles that control chewing

flexor digiti minimi

muscle that moves the little toe

flexor digitorum brevis

muscle that moves the toes and helps maintain
balance while walking and standing


extensor muscle of the wrist involved in flexing the wrist

frontal artery

branch of the superficial temporal artery that supplies blood to the forehead and upper eyelids

frontal bone

bone that forms the forehead


front protion of the epicranius; muscle of the scalp that raises the eyebrows, draws the scalp forward and causes wrinkles across the forehead


muscle attached to the lower rear surface of the heel and pulls the foot down


organs that remove and release certain elements from the blood to convert them into new compounds

greater auricular nerve

cervical nerve that is located at the side of the neck; affects the face, ears, neck and parotid gland

greater occipital nerve

cervical nerve that is located in the back of the head


muscular, cone shaped organ that keeps the blood moving within the circulatory system


complex iron protein in red blood cells that binds to oxygen; gives blood color


also known as microscopic anatomy; the study of tiny structures found in living tissues


secretions, such as insulin, adrenaline and estrogen, that stimulate functional activity or other secretions in the body. Hormone influence the welfare of the entire body


uppermost and largest bone in the arm, extending from the elbow to the shoudler

hyoid bone

U shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue and its muscles

inferior labial artery

branch of the facial artery that supplies blood to the lower lip

infraorbital artery

branch of the internal carotid artery that supplies blood to the muscles of the eye

infraorbital nerve

branch of the fifth cranial nerve that affects the skin of the lower eyelid, side of the nose, upper lip and mouth.

infratrochlear nerve

branch of the fifth cranial nerve that affects the membrane and skin of the nose


breathing in through the nose and mouth


the movable part of the muscle that is farthest from the skeleton

integumentary system

body system that consists of skin and its accessory organs, such as the oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair and nails; serves as a protective covering and helps regulate the body's temperature

internal carotid artery

artery that supplies blood to the brain, eyes, eyelids, forehead, nose and internal ear

internal jugular vein

vein loacated at the side of the neck to collect blood from the brain and parts of the face and neck

interstitial fluid

blood plasma found in the spaces between tissue cells


body organ that digests food, along with the stomach


connection between two or more bones of the skeleton


body organs that excrete water and waste products

lacrimal bones

small,thin bones located at the frontinner wall of the orbits (eye sockets)

latissimus dorsi

large, flat, triangular muscle covering the lower back

levator labii superioris muscle

also known as quadratus abii superioris muscle; muscle surrounding the upper lip; elevates the upper lip and dilates the nostrils, as in expressing distaste


body organ that removes waste created by digestion


spongy tissues composed of microscopic cells in which inhaled air is exchanged for carbon dioxide during one breathing cycle; organs of respiration


clear fluid that circulates in the lymph space (lymphatics) of the body. Lymph helps carry wastes and impurities away from the cells before it is routed back to the circulatory system

lymph capillaries

blind end tubes that are the origin of lymphatic vessels

lymph nodes

gland like structures found inside lymphatic vessels; filter the lymphatic vessels and help fight infection

lymphatic/immune system

body system that consists of lymph, lymph nodes, the thymus gland, the spleen, and lymph vessels. It carries waste and impurities away from the cells and protects the body from disease by developing immunities and destroying disease causing mocroorganisms


lower jawbone; largest and strongest bone of the face

mandibular nerve

branch of the fifth cranial nerve that affects the muscles of the chin, lower lip and external ear

marginal mandibular nerve

branch of the 7th cranial nerve that affects the muscles of the chin and lower lip


muscles that coordinate with the temporalis and pterygoid muscles to open and close the mouth and bring the jaw forward; sometimes referred to as chewing

maxillae (singular maxilla)

bones of the upper jaw

maxillary nerve

branch of the 5th cranial nerve that supplies impulses to the upper part of the face

median nerve

sensory motor nerve that is smaller than the ulner and radial nerves and that, with its branches, supplies the arm and hand

mental nerve

branch of the 5th cranial nerve that affects the skin of the lower lip and chin

mentalis muscle

muscle that elevates the lower lip and raises and wrinkles skin of the chin


chemical process that takes place in living organisms, through which the cells are nourished and carryout their activities; metabolism has two phases: anabolism and catabolism


bones of the palm of the hand: parts of the hand containing five bones between the carpus and phalanges


one of three subdivisions of the foot; long and slender bones, similar to the metacarpal bones of the hand . The other two subdivisions are the tarsal and phalanges

middle temporal artery

branch of the superficial temporal artery that supplies blood to the temples


usual process of cell reproduction of of human tissues that occurs when the cell divides into two identical cells called daughter cells

mitral valve

also known as bucuspid valve; the valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle of the heart

motor nerves

also know as efferent nerves; carry impulses from the brain to the muscles or glands

muscle tissue

tissue that contracts and moves various parts of the body

muscular system

body system that covers, shapes and holds the skeleton system in place; muscular system contracts and moves various parts of the body


study of nature, structure, function and disease of the muscles

nasal bones

bones that form the bridge of the nose

nasal nerve

branch of the 5th cranial nerve that affects the point and lower side of the nose

nerve tissue

tissue that carries messages to and from the brain and controls and coordinates all bodily functions


whitish cords made up of bundles of nerve fibers held together by connective tissue through which impulses are transmitted

nervous system

body system that consists of the brain, spinal cord and nerves; controls and coordinates all other systems of the body and makes them work harmoniously and efficiently


scientific study of the structure, function, and pathology of the nervous system


also know as nerve cell; primary strucural unit of the nervous system, consists of the cell body, nucleus, dendrites and axon

nonstriated muscles

also known as smooth muscles; these muscles are involuntary and function automatically without conscious will


dense, active protoplasm found in the center of the cell; plays an important part in cell reproduction and metabolism

occipital artery

branch of the external carotid artery that supplies blood to the skin and muscles of the sclp and back of the head up to the crown

occipital bone

hindmost bone of the skull, below the parietal bones; forms the back of the skull above the nape


back portion of the epicranius; muscle that draws the scalp backward

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