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APUSH Chapter 6 Terms
Terms in this set (36)
Edict of Nantes
the document issued by the crown that granted limited toleration to French Protestants thus ceasing religious wars.
King Louis XIV
led France as it became the mightiest European nation; was enthroned at age 5 and reigned for 72 years. He took an interest in overseas colonies, unfortunately for North America.
first permanent French settlement in North America, founded by Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain
a leading figure, intrepid soldier and explorer whose energy and leadership earned him the title "Father of New France". He sailed up St Lawrence River, and founded the city of Quebec in 1608.
had friendly relations with the French. French allied with them to defeat the Iroquois of the upper New York area. Indigenous people of North America.
allies to New Netherland. They acquired guns from them, so were superior to other natives. They fought other natives in "beaver wars" over furs and incorporated the defeated into their tribe.
(Canada) French colony in North America, with a capital in Quebec, founded 1608. Fell under the direct control of the king after verious commercial companies had failed. This royal regime was autocratic, the people did not elect assemblies, and there was not trial by jury.
abundant in New France, valued for warmth and appearance. French fur-trappers/ coureurs de bois hunted beavers throughout North America.
/Coureurs de bois/
translated as "runners of the woods," they were French fur-trappers, also known as "voyageurs" (travelers), who established trading posts throughout North America. They were also two-fisted drinkers, free spenders, free livers and lovers. They recruited Indians into the fur business. The fur trade wreaked havoc on the health and folkways of their Native American trading partners. Extinguished the beaver population in the process.
French; founded Detroit "the city of Straits" in 1701 to stop the English settlers from moving into the Ohio valley
Robert de La Salle
Frenchman who followed the Mississippi River all the way to the Gulf of Mexico, claiming the region for France and naming it Louisiana in honor of King Louis XIV
strategic French outpost at the mouth of the Mississippi River. To block off Spain from the Gulf of Mexico.
King William's War and Queen Anne's War
The earliest contests among the European powers for control of North America. British colonist against French coureurs de bois. Both sides had Indian allies and Spain was allied with France. Eventually, a peace treaty was signed that revealed how badly France and Spain had been beaten. Britain was awarded Acadia/Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Hudson Bay.
a French-speaking but British-controlled region renamed Nova Scotia or New Scotland. The English expelled peaceful Acadian farmers from their homeland during the French and Indian war. Many resettled in Louisiana, becoming Cajuns.
War of Jenkin's Ear
British captain Jenkins had his head sliced of by Spanish revenue authorities. Captain brought his shriveled ear and much resentment back to Britain. Land squabble between Britain and Spain over Georgia and trading rights. Battles took place in the Caribbean and on the Florida/Georgia border.
King George's War
or War of Austrian succession. French allies with Spain. New Englanders invaded New France. New Englanders were aided by British fleet, they captured the French fortress of Louisburg. Peace treaty handed Louisberg back to French though, New Englanders were outraged. France still clung to their vast holdings in North America.
French fortress on Cape Breton Island that was captured by British New Englanders. A peace treaty in 1748 returned it to France.
became chief area of dispute between French and British. It was the key for both to link the land that they already had, and soon relations became incredibly tense. British colonial speculators gained shaky legal rights to some 500,000 acres of this region. The French were in a process of erecting a chain of forts commanding the Ohio River.
a French fort in Ohio (later site of Pittsburgh) at which the war began. Where the rivers meet the Ohio river.
21 year old surveyor and Virginian who was sent to Ohio as a lieutenant colonel in charge of 150 militamen. Fought at Fort Duquesne and in the French and Indian war, which he began in the Ohio Valley. "I heard the bullets whistle and believe me there is something charming in the cound"
Washington's hastily contracted fort. Was forced to surrender it after a ten hour siege on July 4 1754 by the French.
descendants of French-speaking Acadians in Louisiana who came to be when the British uprooted French Acadians and sent them south.
French and Indian War
the fourth Anglo-French colonial struggle that began with George Washington in the Ohio Valley. Lasted two years and widened into the Seven Years War. Fought in America, Europe, West Indies, Philippines, and Africa. Seven seas war. Britain and Prussia (germany) vs. France Spain, Austria, Russia.
Frederick the Great
German leader who repelled French, Austrian, and Russian armies with opposing forces outnumbering his 3:1. So much French strength was wasted in Germany that they were unable to throw an adequate force into the New World.
British government created an inter-colonial congress in Albany, NY, but delegates from only 7 of the 13 colonies showed up. The purpose was to keep the Iroquois loyal to the British, as well as to achieve greater colonial unity and bolster the common defense against France. Guns/gifts given to chiefs.
"Join or Die"
Benjamin Franklin published a cartoon showing the separate colonies as parts of a disjointed snake with this slogan.
bullheaded, 60 year old British general who was sent to Virginia and set out to capture Fort Duquesne with a force of buckskins. His expedition moved slowly and was defeated, also resulting in his death, when they met a small French and Indian army on the way.
Braddock's force consisted of them; ill-disciplined colonial militiamen whose behind-the-tree methods of fighting Indians won Braddock's contempt.
the British invaded Canada, and they should have, but did not, focus their strength on Montreal. Later, William Pitt decided (wisely) to focus on the Quebec-Montreal area. Montreal fell a year after Quebec and it was the last French surrender in Canada.
a British leader who was known as the "Great Commoner"; he drew much strength from common people. He was passionate about his country and his cause. He earned the title "Organizer of Victory" and decided to stop attacks on the French West Indies and focus on the Quebec-Montreal area. He launched an expedition against Louisbourg, which was a great British victory.
a British officer chosen by William Pitt to go to Quebec. He paid much attention to detail. He died in the fight in Quebec, but the British won and Quebec surrendered.
Plains of Abraham
on the outskirts of Quebec; the British army under Wolfe and the French army under the Marquis de Montcalm met here to fight, and the British won.
Battle of Quebec
took place on the Plains of Abraham in 1759. The British defeated the French. One of the most significant engagements in British and American history.
Treaty of Paris
with this the French power was thrown completely off the continent of North America, leaving a fertile French population still a minority in Canada today. French were allowed to retain several small sugar islands in the West Indies and two islets in the Gulf of St Lawrence for fishing stations. Spain turned over Florida to Britain, but Britain gave Cuba back to Spain. France gives trans Mississippi, Louisiana to Spain.
Ottawa chief who led several Indian tribes and a handful of French traders in a violent campaign to drive the British out of the Ohio country. They besieged Detroit, overran British posts, and killed many British soldiers and settlers. British retaliated swiftly and cruelly. Crushed the uprising. Chief was killed at the hands of a rival chieftain.
Proclamation of 1763
issued by the London government, it flatly prohibited settlement in the area beyond the Appalachians, however it was not designed to oppress colonists, but rather to work out the Indian problem fairly and to prevent another bloody uprising. This did not stop colonists.
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