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BIOL 2110 Lecture 21 - antibody, cellular immunity, disorders of the immune system, hypersensitivity, and immunodeficiencies
Terms in this set (90)
Stem cells in the bone marrow differentiate into
erythrocytes, granulocytes, or monocytes.
Alternatively, stems cells become ____ and these differentiate into ___ or ___.
lymphoid stem cells, B lymphocytes (B cells) or T lymphocytes (T cells)
The B cells are so-called because in birds, where they were first recognized, the differentiation of stem cells takes place in a lymphoid organ in the lower gut called the
bursa of Fabricius.
In humans, this differentiation of stem cell takes place in
the fetal liver and adult bone marrow.
The T cells are so-called because their stem cell differentiation takes place in
After differentiation from the stem cells, The B cells and T cells then migrate to
The B and T cells are found mainly in____ and ____, but also in ___ and ____.
the lymph nodes and the spleen, the bone marrow and the gastrointestinal tract
When activated by an antigen, B cells synthesize the antibodies that are responsible for
When activated by an antigen, T cells are bring about ___ immunity, but they play a role in ___ immunity as well.
Self antigens are protein antigens on
vertebrate cell surfaces.
Self antigens are coded for by genes collectively termed
the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). They are referred to as MHC antigens.
Class I MHC antigens are found on all ___. Only red blood cells are ___.
nucleated vertebrate cells, non-nucleated
Class II MHC antigens are found on cells involved in the humoral response, they are
macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells.
Dendritic cells are
antigen-presenting cells for T cells.
MHC antigens indicate self, but also act as presenting molecules for
What happens after a B cell binds the antigen?
internalizes it, and degrades it into smaller fragments.
Some of these fragments after B cell binds to antigen, the fragments are
re-deposited on the cell surface, each in combination with an MHC class II antigen.
The B cell can bind the antigen because it has an appropriate
The surface receptor of the B cell is a ___that the B cell is capable of synthesizing.
copy of the antibody
APCs stand for
Antigen presenting cells
Macrophages and dendritic cells.
After The APC binds the antigen, what happens?
They internalizes it by endocytosis, and degrades it into smaller fragments.
After the APC binds the antigen and degrades into smaller fragments, Some of these fragments bind to
an MHC class II molecule and are deposited on the cell surface.
The T cell by itself cannot interact with
an intact antigen.
The T cell requires ___ to process the antigen and present it as an antigen fragment. Only then can the T cell, via its T cell receptor, bind to the antigen fragment.
Based on the presence of certain surface antigens (termed ____), T cells are subdivided into two major subsets, they are ___ and ___.
cluster of differentiation, or CD, CD4+ CD8- and CD8+ CD4-
CD4+ T cells are known as
T helper cells or TH cells.
There are two subsets of TH cells:
TH1 cells are required in cellular immunity. And TH2 cells are required in humoral immunity
CD8+ T cells are
cytotoxic T cells or TC cells.
TC cells recognize a foreign antigen on the surface of a target cell, and
lyse the cell via cell-to-cell contact.
T cell-independent antigens can bind to ___ and directly induce antibody synthesis (in the absence of any T-lymphocyte help). However, these antigens induce an ___ response only.
B cells, IgM
In T cell-dependent antibody synthesis, An ¬¬¬___ binds to an antigen and processes it.
In T cell-dependent antibody synthesis, A ___ cell binds to the processed antigen (via the___ receptor) which causes the ___ to secrete substances called____.
TH2, T cell, APC, interleukins
In T cell-dependent antibody synthesis The interleukins cause the ___cell to divide and to synthesize and secrete other interleukins.
In T cell-dependent antibody synthesis The interleukins cause proliferation of the TH2 cells (specific for the___). The TH2 cells can be referred to as ___cells.
antigen presented on the APC, activated TH2
At the same time as In T cell-dependent antibody synthesis, a ___cell binds to the antigen and processes it.
In T cell-dependent antibody synthesis An ___cell binds to the antigen fragment on the surface of the _ cell and then secretes several ___.
activated TH2, B, interleukins
In T cell-dependent antibody synthesis, The interleukins cause the B cell to multiply. Each resulting B cell is capable of
specific antibody synthesis.
In T cell-dependent antibody synthesis, Other interleukins cause some B cells to stop multiplying and to differentiate into
plasma cells and memory cells.
After B cells differentiate in T cell-dependent antibody synthesis, resulted Plasma cells survive for about
one week, but they synthesize large quantities of antibody.
After B cells differentiate In T cell-dependent antibody synthesis, how long does resulted Memory cells live? And what happens?
The resulted memory cells live long. Upon subsequent exposure to the same antigen, they are quickly transformed into plasma cells.
After B cell differentiate In T cell-dependent antibody synthesis, The memory cells account for the more dramatic secondary response, that is called ____.
Cellular immunity is also called
Cellular immunity is a second system of immunity possessed by
Cellular immunity is most frequently directed against
whole cells (or virions) -- bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses -- but also against foreign tissues (their MHC antigens) and tumours.
Cellular immunity depends upon the presence of two groups of lymphocytes, they are
T cells, and large granular lymphocytes (LGLs).
The T cells works in Cellular immunity are
TH1 cells and TC cells.
The LGL group is composed of
natural killer cells (NK cells) and a derivative of NK cells called lymphokine activated killer cells (LAK cells).
In Cellular immunity An ___ binds to an antigen and processes it.
In Cellular immunity A ___cell binds to the processed antigen.
In Cellular immunity, Interleukin production by the two cells causes ___ cell proliferation and differentiation into ___ and ___.
TH1, activated TH1 cells and memory TH1 cells.
In Cellular immunity, Activated TH1 cells secrete ___ which stimulates ___.
gamma interferon (INF-gamma), macrophages
In Cellular immunity, Activated TH1 cells secrete
tumour necrosis factor-beta (TNF-beta) which lyses foreign cells.
In Cellular immunity, TC cells recognize specific antigens bound to
MHC class I molecules on cell surfaces and lyse the displaying cell.
In Cellular immunity, the role of TC cells is to
destroy self cells that have acquired nonself surface antigens.
In Cellular immunity, NK cells kill
malignant cells and cells that have antibodies bound to their surface.
In Cellular immunity, NK cells treated with___ have increased cytolytic ability and are termed ___.
interleukin-2, lymphokine activated killer cells or LAK cells
Briefly explain about hypersensitivity.
This is a condition in which the immune system overreacts and causes injury to the host. In other words, the antigen-antibody reaction or the antigen-T cell reaction is harmful.
A hypersensitivity is either
an immediate hypersensitivity or a delayed hypersensitivity.
An immediate hypersensitivity is mediated by
In An immediate hypersensitivity, the antigen-antibody reaction is
harmful rather than beneficial.
Examples of immediate hypersensitivities are
the systemic allergies of anaphylaxis and serum sickness, and the more localized allergies of asthma, hay fever, and urticaria.
In an immediate hypersensitivity The dose of antigen to which an individual becomes sensitive is known as
the sensitizing dose.
How many exposure to antigen required to reach the sensitizing dose in an immediate hypersensitivity?
It could be the first exposure to the antigen, the fifth exposure, whatever.
In an immediate hypersensitivity, after reached the sensitizing dose, A subsequent dose of the antigen causes ¬¬¬___ and is called the ___, or, if the injury is severe, it is called the ___.
tissue damage, eliciting dose, shocking dose
In an immediate hypersensitivity, The antigens are called allergens and they are labelled as
injectants, inhalants, ingestants, or contactants.
In an immediate hypersensitivity, The antibodies involved are of
the IgE class.
In an immediate hypersensitivity, ___ is formed in response to the sensitizing dose of the antigen.
In an immediate hypersensitivity, The IgE antibodies do not circulate independently in the blood, but attach to
mast cells and basophils.
Mast cells are ____ found adjacent to ___ throughout the body.
connective tissue cells, blood capillaries
In an immediate hypersensitivity, The eliciting dose sets off the train of physiological events: the first is
The antigen molecules combine with IgE antibodies which, of course, are attached to mast cells and basophils.
In an immediate hypersensitivity, The eliciting dose sets off the train of physiological events: the second is
The mast cells and basophils then release a number of physiologically active substances, one of which is histamine.
During the second event occur in the immediate hypersensitivity, The substances (for example, histamine) released cause:
dilatation of blood arterioles, contraction and spasm of smooth muscles (particularly in the bronchioles), and increased capillary permeability with edema
As a result of the substances (including histamine) released during the second event of the immediate hypersensitivity, If these effects are massive, what can happen to the body? (the terminology and actual physiological response with 3 examples).
Anaphylactic shock: a sudden drop in blood pressure with circulatory collapse, Extensive smooth muscle contraction brings about severe bronchospasm, and Edema results in laryngeal constriction.
Lesser or more localized symptoms of immediate hypersensitivity are evident in
serum sickness and in the localized allergies.
A delayed hypersensitivity is mediated by sensitized
In a delayed hypersensitivity, The response to the antigenic stimulus is exaggerated, and thus the ___ reaction is harmful rather than beneficial.
Two examples of delayed hypersensitivities are
tuberculin skin test reactions and contact dermatitis.
Immunodeficiencies are conditions in which there is an underperformance in
humoral immunity or cell-mediated immunity, or both.
Cause of Immunodeficiencies can be
congenital, iatrogenic (induced by immunosuppressive drugs), or the result of malignancies of the lymphatic system.
The word iatrogenic means
relating to illness caused by medical examination or treatment.
Underline cause of immunodeficiencies are due to
B cell abnormalities, T cell abnormalities, or a combination of the two.
In Immunodeficiencies due to B cell abnormalities, the term ___ means a decreased production of antibodies.
In Immunodeficiencies due to B cell abnormalities, the term ___ means the complete failure of immunoglobulin production, and is ____defect.
Agammaglobulinemia, a congenital
One example of Immunodeficiencies due to T cell abnormalities is
____ is the congenital absence of a thymus gland or the formation of a rudimentary thymus gland.
Explain Immunodeficiencies due to T cell abnormalities using words cellular immunity and humoral immunity.
There is no cellular immunity, and humoral immunity is adversely affected as well.
What we have to provide for Children with DiGeorge's Syndrome?
They must be raised in complete protective isolation.
Immunodeficiencies due to combined B cell and T cell abnormalities is
The congenital absence of lymphoid stem cells results in the absence of both B cells and T cells.
What is Immunodeficiencies due to combined B cell and T cell abnormalities called?
This is called the Swiss type of immunodeficiency or Swiss type agammaglobulinemia.
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