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AP European History Chapter 19
AP European History Chapter 19 Identifications Mrs. Ashcroft
Terms in this set (50)
July 14, 1879
This was the largest Third Estate revolt as a result of Louis XVI getting mad at them for trying to make a new constitution. Louis had increased his troops at his arsenals in Paris to inflame public opinion. The Third Estate needed weapons and invaded Invalides and then Bastille, an armory/state prison. When the Bastille fell, it symbolized the defeat of despotism.
a royal armory and state prison. It's fall on July 14 1789 quickly became a popular symbol of the triumph of liberty over despotism
July 4, 1776
The date of the writing of the American Declaration of Independence, which said that America was free from Britain in all ways. This in turn started a war between Britain and America. The Declaration was primarily written by Thomas Jefferson.
"life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."
Location where General Cornwallis, British commander, surrendered to Washington with a French and American army and a French fleet.
The Constitution of 1789
Congress proposed twelve amendments to the Constitution and the ten that were ratified are now known as the Bill of Rights. The reason the Constitution passed through was the promise of adding a bill of rights. It incorporated very Enlightened ideas.
Bill of Rights
the ten amendments to the United States Constitution that were ratified by the states in March of 1789
The Marquis de Lafayette
a French officer who served in the American war to strike a blow against England. He returned to France with ideas of individual liberties and notions of republicanism and popular sovereignty, and became a member of the Society of Thirty which was influential in the early stages of the French Revolution
First and Second Estates
Former: Made up of clergy. Rich were higher up and stemmed from aristocratic families and the poor were parish priests. 130,000 people.
Latter: Nobility. Divided into nobles of the robe -- gaining an office -- and nobles of the sword -- family line. Took part in mining or metallurgical practices by owning or investing. Had most postitions in military, church, and government. Both Estates exempt from taille but clergy agreed to give a contribution every five years.
Chief tax of France. The First and Second Estates were both exempt from this tax, leaving it all to the Third Estate.
everyone besides the clergy and the nobility in the kingdom, although the reps. were primarily wealthy members of the middle class. Reps made it clear that they would not allow the monarch and the aristocracy to decide the future of the nation
the middle class, a group that included the merchants, industrialists, bankers and professionals such as lawyers, holders of public offices, doctors and writers. Upset by the fact that they did not receive the same privileges that the nobles did. Eventually some did transfer to the Second Estate.
French noble councils that regulated the legislation of the king. They decided if taxes would get passed or not. They could block edicts, making the financial problem in France even worse and upsetting the reform of France.
Vote by order of by head?
When the Estates-General was called because the state needed financial help, they offered raising taxes. This was the third time the Estates-General had met. The meeting was broken down in 300 First Estate, 300 Second Estate, and 600 Third Estate. The Third Estate received double representation because they made up the majority of the population. When voting for what to reform it was question by First Estate winning or by number (Third Estate essentially)
wrote an essay called "What is the Third Estate?" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the government should be responsible to the people. The royal council responded by doubling the size of the Third Estate's representative body in the Estates-General.
The National Assembly
members of the Third Estate broke away from the Estates-General, and with some of the other Estates members, formed this new legislative body
The Tennis Court Oath
the oath that the representatives of the third estate took when they swore that they would never disband until they had proper representation
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
the charter of basic liberties that reflected the ideas of the French Enlightenment and also owed much to the American Declaration of Independence and American State Constitutions
Olympe de Gouges
A proponent of democracy, she demanded the same rights for French women that French men were demanding for themselves. In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. She lost her life to the guillotine due to her revolutionary ideas.
"we are bringing back the baker"
Armed women in large mass marched to Versailles and demanded bread, made Louis XVI come back to Paris. So they brought back flour and sang this phrase over and over.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Secularized the church and made bishops and priests elected and paid for by the state. Began to require an oath, but the pope forbid.
members of a nation-wide network of political clubs that offered radical solutions to France's problems during the French Revolution. First emerged as radical deputies. They had clubs in the provinces. They were upset with the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. Joined an extensive correspondence network.
Escape to Varnnes
Louis XVI was still trusted by the bourgeoisie. He tried to run away because he was upset with the revolution. He tried to leave France but was found and captured at Varnnes. The National Assembly ignored it and pretended that he was kidnapped.
Declaration of Pillnitz
Issued by Leopold II and Frederick William II, this promised that Austria and Prussia would intervene in France to protect the royal family and preserve the monarchy if the other major European powers agreed.
The radical small government in France that asked the Legislative Assembly to call for the election by universal male suffrage of a new assembly to write a democratic constitution.
Meaning "without breeches", these were Parisian working people who were hostile to the aristocracy and fiercely republican. However, they feared representative government.They teamed up with the Jacobins to carry out a second revolution.
one of the leaders of the Mountain. He was the sans culottes minister of justice and helped kill all those who helped the king. He helped to solve the overcrowded prison problem.
French radical legislative body called to write a democratic revolution. Artisans, lawyers, professionals, and property owners. They all disliked the monarchy, abolished it and built a republic. They stopped agreeing and split. The two main factions were Girondins and The Mountain -- both of the Jacobin club. Girondins wanted to keep the king as a scapegoat for Paris mobs. Mountain wanted to kill the King and so did the city. Mountain won and the King was killed.
Girondins and the Mountain
- a faction of the National Convention primarily representing the provinces. They came to fear the radical mobs in Paris and were disposed to keep the king alive as a hedge against future eventualities
- the name for the Jacobins who had seats high up in the assembly hall in the National Convention
Peasants were upset with the draft and revolted. This is a place where the National Assembly did not rule. It led into a full-scale counterrevolution revolt and places like Lyons and Marseilles joined and fought for the old order.
Committee of Public Safety
a governmental body that sought to centralize the administration of France more effectively and to exercise greater control in order to check the excesses of the Reign of Terror
the main leader of the Mountain and the man who ruled France after the First Revolution. The "incorruptable" He set out to build a republic of virtue
Reign of Terror
Period lasting from June 1793 to July 1794 during which thousands of citizens were killed due to being suspected of being against the republic; supported by Robespierre, who said that the only way the utopia could be kept was to eliminate all who were against them
main device used to make executions during the Reign of Terror as it was a quick separation of head and body.
Law of General Maximum
A law created by the Committee of Public Safety limiting the prices on necessities such as food, drink, fuel, and clothing. It failed however because the government did not have enough machinery to enforce it.
Temple of Reason
the new designation for the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris. The renaming was part of the dechristianization movement in France. There was a ceremony there once celebrating reason in which patriotic maidens paraded it with white dress and walked where the altar once stood and a woman figure that represented liberty rose out of the temple.
the son of African slaves who led the revolt against French plantation owners and seized control of all of Hispaniola (now Haiti)
Named after the month Thermidor in the new calendar. Occurred after the death of Robespierre. The terror began to end, Committee of Public Safety lost most of its power. The Jacobin clubs were shut down. Churches were allowed to reopen. Cults could worship freely. Economic regulation was dropped due to laissez-faire. A new constitution was being written being a more conservative republic with more stability.
Body of five directors that held executive power in France; lasted from November 1795 to November 1799; unpopular in France because it seemed as though it would end the Revolution
During the Directory he pushed to go even further than had been or wanted by those like the Jacobins. He wanted to abolish private property and enterprise. His conspiracy was crushed and he was executed.
army general who rose to become Emperor of France and conquered more the half of Europe. Established a Consulate, Concordat with the church, and Civil Code. Defeated 1815 at Waterloo.
Italian and Egyptian Campaigns
In Italy, Napoleon turned a group of ill-disciplined soldiers into an effective fighting force and in a series of stunning victories defeated the Austrians and dictated them to peace in 1797. When trying to conquer Britain, Napoleon tried going into Egypt and taking it, which in turn threatened India. But his plain failed and Napoleon left.
First Consul and Emperor
The Emperor (Napoleon) was the First Estate and he was the most powerful. His word alone could make something automatically happen. There were two other consuls. Napoleon was made the First Consul for life. He later returned to the monarchy and crowned himself monarch.
an agreement that Napoleon arranged with the pope in 1801. Just by signing it, the pope acknowledged the accomplishments of the revolution and the Catholic Church was no longer an enemy of the French government.
The Civil Code
recognized the equality of all citizens before the law, the right of individuals to choose their professions, religious toleration and the abolition of serfdom and feudalism.
Madame de Stael
wrote novels and political works that said Napoleon was tyrannical. Napoleon then banned her books from France and exiled her to the German states where she continued to write.
Austerlitz and Trafalgar
the site of a decisive defeat of a combined French-Spanish fleet by the British navy in 1805
Another reason Napoleon fell from power was ______ (Brotherhood) It was that the people of France would stick together against the other peoples. And as Napoleon spread so did this idea and he became a hated oppressor and other countries also began to hate him.
The Grand Army
more than 600,000 troops that invaded Russia and the Russians kept retreating, burning their own villages behind them. They fought once at Borodino where the French won a costly battle. The Russians kept on retreating and when they finally got to Moscow, everything was burned so the French army left. Only 40,000 men made the trek back to Poland alive.
Elba and Saint Helena
Napoleon was allowed to rule on the island of Elba once he was defeated but he grew tired of this and went back and rallied the French. Him and his army went and attacked Belgium at Waterloo and fought the British and Prussians. He lost badly. He was then exiled to the small forsaken island of Saint Helena.
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