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Honors Psychology: Possible Short Answers/Essay
Terms in this set (13)
Define the term "psychodynamic thinking."
Most things that go on in a person's mind are unconscious (unaware, but influence behavior) and are made up of conflicting impulses, urges, and wishes.
Name the sleeping disorder that disrupts breathing. Tell the health problems related to this disorder.
Sleep apnea. It is associated with snoring and obesity. It leads to some health problems, including high blood pressure, heart attacks, and strokes.
Explain the relationship between populations and samples.
Populations are the whole group being studied or described, whereas a sample is a part of the population that is studied alone, at a single time.
Describe one way that researchers can minimize the placebo effect in an experiment.
One way is with a single-blind study. This is where people don't know whether they are in the controlled or experimental group.
Give an example of Classical Conditioning and label each part of the process.
Example: Pavlov's dogs
Unconditioned Stimulus: Food
Unconditioned Response: Salivating
Neutral Stimulus: Salivating
Conditioned Stimulus: Bell
Conditioned Response: Salivating
Identify the two parts of the nervous system, and explain how they relate to one another.
Two parts: Central nervous system & Peripheral nervous system.
- The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord.
- The peripheral nervous system is made up of the nerve fibers that branch off from the spinal cord and extend to all parts of the body, including the neck and arms, torso, legs, skeletal muscles and internal organs.
Discuss the Hawthorne Effect. Explain how the term came into being.
The inclination to change or modify their behavior only because they are being observed/studied. It got the name from the original study with the women in th Hawthorne Plant of Western Electric Company, (Illinois).
Shirley made an appointment with a psychologist after having difficulty falling asleep for several weeks. Predict two pieces of advice the psychologist might give her.
Insomnia: Use pleasant images to relax; tense muscles one at a time, then let tension go; avoid worrying in bed; make a schedule where you go to bed and wake up at the same time everyday.
Describe the two major categories of partial reinforcement schedules and provide an example of each.
- Interval Schedules- if the amount of time that must elapse between reinforcements of a behavior is greater than 0 seconds. Ex: Weekly Paycheck
- Ratio Schedules- concerns the number of correct responses that must be made before reinforcement occurs. Ex: Slot Machines
Describe what is meant by a token economy. Provide an example in your response.
People are "paid" to act correctly by earning rewards that can be cashed in for merchandise or privileges an individual wants.
Ex: tickets at a preschool given when a child does something good→ can be cashed in to get a prize out of the prize box.
Compare and contrast Absolute Threshold and Difference Threshold. Give an example of each.
Absolute threshold- weakest amount of stimulus that can be sensed. (EX: candle viewed from 30 miles away on a dark night) // Difference threshold- the minimum amount of difference that can be detected between 2 stimuli (EX: 2 dark colored paint chips that look like the same color until going next to a lighter colored chip)
Explain how you might use each of the following research methods: Case study, survey and naturalistic observation
- Case study: in depth investigation of an individual or a small group; provides an insight into specific cases.
- Survey: people are asked to respond to a series of questions about a particular subject.
- Naturalistic observation: researchers observe the behavior of people/animals in their natural habitats; allows research in settings that aren't artificial.
Explain the following terms:
Operational definition, Independent variable, Dependent Variable, Random assignment guidelines:
- Operational definition:
- Independent variable: factor that gets manipulated so its effect can be determined.
- dependent variable: depends on the independent variable
- Random assignment guidelines:
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