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Civil War and Reconstruction 1845-1877
Terms in this set (99)
This formally abolished slavery 100%
Were sleazy Northerners who had come to the South to seek power and profit during the radical reconstruction in the South
Led the Republican radicals in the Senate for black freedom and racial equality. He was the abolitionist who was beaten with a cane in Congress
Led the Republican radicals in the House of Representatives
Created by Eli Whitney in 1794, it was essential to the production of cotton and secured the future of continued slavery.
These are what the southern part of the Democrats in the election of 1860 were called. They saw Stephen Douglas as a traitor for his unpopular opposition to the Lecompton Constitution and his unpopular Freeport Doctrine reply
People who were freed from slavery after the emancipation proclamation
Johnson Clashes with Congress February 1866
The president vetoed a bill extending the controversial Freedmen's Bureau (later re-passed)
The party who was opposed to the extension of slavery into the territories. Eventually, it morphed into the Republican party.
Impending Crisis of the South
Written by Hinton R. Helper, a non-aristocrat from North Carolina who hated both blacks and slavery, attempted to prove that the non-slaveholding whites were the ones who suffered the most from slavery
Due to the dependency on cotton in the South, there is a lack of diversity, which is a weakness, and the Southern social class is split between a small planter aristocracy and a large group of small farmers, all due to this important factor.
Ku Klux Klan
A violence and terror group that targeted African American leaders via political intimidation. It was established in 1866 in Tennessee. Also called the "Invisible Empire of the South".
Merrimack and Monitor
Two armored ships, one for the Union and one for the Confederacy, who fought until a standstill on March 9th, 1862. The South's original intention was to have armored boats to break through the wooden blockade of the Union navy.
Slavery in the south was known as this
Used in the South, it was a method of using African Americans as slaves to work the fields. It established the south's social structure and allowed for little movement between classes.
Were Southerners who were accused of plundering the treasuries of the Southern states through their political influence in the radical governments
The act of states leaving the Union. South Carolina was the first to do so
When blacks were forced to continue to work the plantations after their emancipation due to not being able to afford planting their own fields, pulling a loan, then being forced to pay it back by plowing their own fields.
An abolitionist newspaper written by Henry Lloyd Garrison
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Published in 1852 and written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, it influenced a lot of voters in the 1852 election, and was a major influence in helping the start of the Civil War and helping the North win.
A network of anti-slavery homes that passed slaves from slave states to Canada.
They were given very poor working conditions and very low pay, they would work to earn what ever they could and it was like slavery because of how poorly they were treated, and how low they were paid. They were evident in the factory systems of the North.
A slave who sued for freedom, after he had lived in a free state for several years. He claimed that because of his occupancy in this free state, he had the opportunity to sue for freedom. This all went down in a very important court case which resulted in him not being awarded his freedom because according to the court, slaves were property who weren't allowed to sue.
A black abolitionist who lectured for abolitionism; looked to politics to end slavery; published his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of _______
Harriet Beecher Stowe
She wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin to help show the North the horrors of slavery
A runaway slave who rescued 100s of slaves via the Underground Railroad.
President of the Confederate States of America
A fanatical abolitionist who, in 1856, attacked five pro-slavery men at Pottawatomie Creel in reponse to the pro-slavery events in the growing civil war in Lawrence, Kansas
John Wilkes Booth
Lincoln's assassinator from the south.
A southerner that caused a rebellion against slavery. The rebellion was defeated.
Robert E. Lee
A man that Lincoln attempted to have command the Northern army at the beginning of the Civil War, but turned down the job after his home state Virginia seceded
A freed black woman who fought for black emancipation and women's rights
The designer of the Kansas Nebraska Act, which stated that these territories status on slavery would be decided via popular sovereignty (KS=slave state and NE=free state) which conflicted with the MC1820 because Nebraska was in the Louisiana Territory. He went on to propose the repealing of the MC1820
Ulysses S. Grant
Leader of the Union army, he helped aid in the fall of Vicksburg.
William Lloyd Garrison
An abolitionist who wrote the Liberator, and founded the American Anti-Slavery Society
A senator from New York who opposed slavery, and because of this argued Henry Clay's compromise of enacting stricter Fugitive Slave Laws to help preserve the Union, saying that God's moral law was higher than that of the Constitution. Signed treaty to buy Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million
James Polk, Zachary Taylor, Millard Fillmore, Franklin Pierce, James Buchanan, Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, and Ulysses S. Grant
Gave due process of the law to everyone, including freedmen and blacks
Guaranteed federal suffrage for blacks
Battle of Antietam
A battle in 1862 when Lee and McClellan met, and although the Union did not win, it stopped Lee and the Confederacy from moving north, and it provided the military backing for Lincoln to issue the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.
It was considered this when the New England Emigrant Aid Company (a group of abolitionists) paid people to go to Kansas, so via popular sovereignty, the state would become a free state, rather than a slave state.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
It declared that all people born in the United States were citizens, regardless of race.
Compromise of 1850
With regards to slavery, California would become a free state, and the Utah and New Mexico territories were opened to popular sovereignty. Because of the possibility of all three states being free states, Congress might be unbalanced in the North's favor.
An American steam ship called the Caroline was bringing supplies across the Niagara River to prepare Americans to fight British Canada and was destroyed by the British. A Canadian who bragged about his role in sinking the American ship was tried in America for murder, causing England to threaten war if America killed him. He was sentenced to death, but somehow got out of it. Congressman Joshua Giddings supported the slaves in Congress, which went directly again the gag resolution in Congress about not being able to talk about slavery, so he was sanctioned. After this happened, he was reelected to Congress. This event showed the extreme tension between the North and the South.
These amendments to the Constitution were meant to make the South happy. The prohibited slavery in territories north of 36 30', but permitted it south of the line. Future states north and south of the line would get to vote on this issue of slavery. Pres. Lincoln rejected the amendments
Were a series of violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination of discontent with new laws passed by Congress to draft men to fight in the Civil War.
Election of 1860
In 1863, Lincoln released his "10 percent" Reconstruction plan which dictated that a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10% of its voters in the presidential election of 1860 had taken an oath of allegiance to the United States and pledged to abide by emancipation. Republicans had two issues for this election: protection for the unprotected, and farms for the farmless. Lincoln won this election. Republicans won election, didn't control H of R, the Senate, or S. C.
Election of 1866
For the first time a president (Johnson) "swings around the circle," or campaigns for members of Congress. It was highly frowned upon, so a lot of the people Johnson campaigned for, lost, so it gave Congress veto-proof to the radical majority of Republicans, which is why Johnson got vetoed so much.
Issued in 1863 by Lincoln, it freed all slaves in states currently at war with the Union. Although there were technically still slave states on the border of the Union, it didn't apply to them for fear of even more states seceding.
Congress passed these acts in response to murders that the Ku Klux Klan had committed. These Acts enabled Federal troops to stop these atrocities. They were, however, too late as the klan had intimidated many people
Created in 1865 after the war had ended, it provided clothing, medical care, food, and education to recently freed blacks. It was led by Oliver O. Howard. It's greatest success was educating blacks. Although it was hated by both President Johnson and Southerners, so it expired in 1872.
Fugitive Slave Laws
Stated that escaped slaves must be returned to their owner in their home state
Purchased from Mexico, it bought the Arizona and New Mexico territories for the United States
This required all anti-slavery appeals to be tabled without debate in the House of Representatives. Saying that one could not speak of slavery in Congress was an example.
Higher Law Speech
Spoken by William H. Seward, the senator of New York. It was in opposition to slavery, because of this he opposed Clay's proposals. He argued that God's moral law was higher than the Constitution
In 1867 Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act which required the president to secure the consent of the Senate before the removal of his cabinet members once they'd been approved by the Senate. The purpose was to keep Edwin M. Stanton in the cabinet (Republican party spy). He was voted for impeachment, he went to the S.C., but the Senate voted "not guilty" fearing a bad precedent of abusing checks and balances, and senators disliked his replacement: Ben Wade
Created by Stephen Douglas, it proposed that Kansas and Nebraska's status on slavery would be decided via popular sovereignty (KS=slave state and NE=free state) which conflicted with the MC1820 because Nebraska was in the Louisiana Territory. It went on to wreck both the MC1820 and the Compromise of 1850, hurting the Democratic Party, allowing for the newly formed Republican party to gain power.
A document that stated that people weren't allowed to vote for/against this constitution, but rather if this constitution would be "with" or "without" slavery.
Occurred in 1820, said that there couldn't be slave states above 36 30 in the Louisiana Purchase, but is later repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Stated that if Spain didn't allow the United States to purchase Cuba for $120M, then the US would attack Cuba on grounds that Spain's continued ownership of Cuba endangered US interests. It was eventually leaked, and the North foiled President Pierce's slavery driven plans
Scott v. Sanford
SCOTUS ruled that because Scott was a black slave and not a citizen, but merely property, he could not sue the federal courts, which later led to SCOTUS delcaring the MC1820 unconstitutional
Second Great Awakening
This inspired many abolitionists to speak out against the sins of slavery
This was when a man made a treaty to buy Alaska. The American people were focused on Reconstruction and anti-expansion but supported the purchase of Alaska in order to not offend the Russians after they aided them in the war. Not all Americans supported this, and REFER TO IT AS:
Tenure in Office Act
Congress passed this in order to try to force the president to check with the Senate before removing the cabinet members already agreed by the Senate. The real purpose was to keep the secretary of war Edwin M. Stanton (republican spy) in the presidents cabinet
Occurred in late 1861. Union warship stopped British mail steamer, and removed 2 Confederate diplomats headed to Europe. Britain started to send troops to Canada in retaliation, however the situation was resolved when President Lincoln freed the Confederate prisoners
Uncle Tom's Cabin (event)
Because of this book, the problems that caused the Civil War to begin, were formed
An opposition to Lincoln's 10% plan, it declared that 50% of voters would have to swear to an oath of allegiance to the United States, rather than just 10% like in Lincoln's plan. It passes in Congress, but is vetoed by Lincoln, revealing the large split between Congress and the President.
A dispute over whether any Mexican territory that America won during the Mexican War should be free or a slave territory. It was defeated in Congress, and was one of the leading factors that caused the Civil War
Southerners started to demand stricter fugitive-slave laws. The congressional debate was called to address the admission of California to the Union and threats of secession by southerners. President Taylor died suddenly, replaced by vice pres. Millard Fillmore. Fugitive-slave law, the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty,
The year in which the Civil War began
The year in which the Civil War ended and Lincoln was assassinated
The last federal troops were removed from the South and Democracy returned to the South (in theory), in this year
The belief that slavery needs to end
Their purpose was to ensure a constant labor supply by controlling the free black population, via stiff penalties for violations, debt servitude, and required proof of employment, all which essentially leads back to black slavery
The idea of slavery (whether it should be included or not) is decided by a popular vote of the people when a new territory is added.
Lincoln's "10 percent" Reconstruction plan, the Wade-Davis Bill in 1864, the split of two factions in the Republican party, and the reconstruction plan in 1865 by president Johnson. Additionally, the leading to the 13th Amendment
After the Civil War, they were the Republicans who wanted the South to suffer before re-entrance into the Union.
Was absolutely brutal. They experienced extreme racism and prejudice and lots of unequal treatment, even after the Emancipation Proclamation.
Southern Social Structure
It was split between a very small planter aristocracy, a large amount of farmers, and a whole bunch of slaves
The states that technically weren't included in the emancipation proclamation even though they were slave states. Lincoln didn't include them because he was afraid that they would secede as well.
South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina (SC was the first to secede)
Signaled the start of the Civil War on April 12th, 1861
The location where John Brown attempted to call upon the slaves to rise in order to gain weapons, and establish a free state, where he attempted to seize this federal arsenal
This territory, originally called the Territory of Nebraska, was to be sliced in two, and the slavery status to be decided by popular sovereignty. Nebraska free, the other slave. It conflicted w/ Missouri Compromise, yet President Pierce fully supported it
Mexican Cession territory
The land that Mexico gave to the U.S. which was land from Texas to California that was north of the Rio Grande.
Located in Virginia, it was the capital of the Confederacy.
Where gold was first discovered in 1848; marked the beginning of the Gold Rush.
Stephen Douglas' response to the most famous Lincoln-Douglas Debate. He said that no matter how SCOTUS ruled, slavery would stay down if the people voted it down. This went directly against the Dred Scott decision and made him very unpopular with the Southern Democrats.
How justified were Lincoln's abridgments of civil liberties?
Describe the complexity of slave culture.
What were the economic effects of the war?
Describe the economic, political, and social structure of the pre-war South.
Explain the pro-slavery arguments put forward by the South.
How did the party system evolve in this period?
How did the mid-term elections of 1866 alter the political landscape?
In what ways were cotton production and slavery more of a burden to the South than a benefit?
In 1787, 1820, 1833, and 1850 the North and the South had been able to compromise, why not in 1861?
The war began in 1861. Why was it 1863 before Lincoln committed the North to Emancipation?
Explain the claim that, "the North won the Civil War, but the South won Reconstruction."
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