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adventitious breath sound
abnormal sound, including sibilant wheezes (formerly wheezes), sonorous wheezes (formerly rhonchi), fine and course crackles (formerly rales), pleural friction rubs, and stridor
loud, high-pitched, hollow-sounding breath sound normally heard over the sternum. Longer on expiration than inspiration
breath sound normally heard in the area of the scapula and near the sternum; medium in pitched blowing sound, with inspiratory and expiratory phases of equal length
process whereby the center of the primary tubercle formed in the lungs as a result of tuberculosis becomes soft and cheese-like due to decreased perfusion
process whereby a cavity is created in the lung tissue through the liquefaction and rupture of a primary tubercle
process whereby a substance moves from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
death and subsequent change of tissue to a liquid or semi-liquid state; often descriptive of a primary tubercle
lung stretch receptor
receptor that monitors the patterns of breathing and prevents overexpansion of the lungs
pleural friction rub
abnormal breath sound that is creaky and grating in nature and is heard on inspiration and expiration
inflammation of the bronchioles and alveoli accompanied by consolidation, or solidification of exudate, in the lungs
condition wherein air or gas accumulates in the pleural space of the lungs, causing the lungs to collapse
abnormal breath sound that is high pitched and musical in nature and is heard on inhalation and exhalation
abnormal breath sound that is low pitched and snoring in nature and is louder on expiration
phospholipids that are present in the lungs and lowers surface tension to prevent collapse of the airways
soft, breezy, low-pitched sound heard longer on inspiration than expiration resulting from air moving through the smaller airways over the lung periphery, with the exception of the scapular area
medications that provide symptomatic relief of allergic symptoms caused by histamine release
medications that relax the smooth muscles of the bronchial tree, thereby relieving bronchospasm and increasing the vital capacity of the lungs
drugs that constrict blood vessels in the respiratory tract, resulting in shrinkage of swollen mucous membranes and opened nasal airway passages
anticholinergics; medications that decrease the chemical that promotes bronchospasm
smoking cessation aids
medications used to slowly lower the level of nicotine while the patient participates in a behavior modification program for smoking cessation
medications that indirectly increase the chemical that causes bronchodilation; used particularly for treatment of acute asthmatic attacks
Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine
a vaccine containing attenuated tubercle bacilli that may be given to persons in foreign countries or to those traveling to foreign countries to produce increased resistance to tuberculosis
chronic airflow limitation, chronic obstructive lung disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
a disease state characterized by pulmonary airflow obstruction that is usually progressive, not fully reversible, and sometimes accompanied by airway hyperreactivity; airflow obstruction may be caused by chronic bronchitis and /or emphysema; in chronic hypercapnia the stimulus to breathe is a low p02 instead of an increased pc02
a skin test that determines infection with tuberculosis; a small amount (0.1 ml) of intermediate-strength purified protein derivative containing 5 tuberculin units is given intradermally in the forearm; an area of induration measuring 10 mm or more in diameter, 48 to 72 hours after injection, indicates that the individual has been exposed to tuberculosis
the use of a ventilator to move room air or oxygen-enriched air into and out of the lungs mechanically if a client is unable to ventilate enough on his or her own to maintain proper levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood
a multidrug-resistant strain of tuberculosis (MDR-TB) can occur as a result of improper or noncompliant use of prescribed treatment programs and the development of mutations in the tubercle bacilli
the causative organism (bacillus) of tuberculosis; an aerobic bacterium that is a nonmotile, nonsporulating, acid-fast rod that secretes niacin
a sterile procedure that involves the removal of respiratory secretions that accumulate in the trachobronchial airway when the client is unable to expectorate secretions; performed to maintain a patent airway
a highly communicable disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis; tuberculosis is transmitted by the airborne route via droplet infection
The physician orders 2 to 3 L/min of oxygen to be delivered to the client with COPD because:
a higher flow rate may suppress the client's drive to breathe
A particulate respirator mask is used by the nurse caring for a client with TB because:
regular masks allow the tubercle bacilli to pass through
The client with a pneumothorax experiences hypoxia due to:
compression of the lung tissue underlying the pneumothorax
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