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Respiratory System: Definitions/Questions/Answers

Definitions and Questions/Answers of Chapter 32 and Chapter 26 and NCLEX of the Respiratory System
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adventitious breath sound
abnormal sound, including sibilant wheezes (formerly wheezes), sonorous wheezes (formerly rhonchi), fine and course crackles (formerly rales), pleural friction rubs, and stridor
asthma
condition characterized by intermittent airway obstruction due to antigen-antibody reaction
atelectasis
collapse of a lung or a portion of a lung
audible wheeze
wheeze that can be heard without the aid of a stethoscope
bronchial sound
loud, high-pitched, hollow-sounding breath sound normally heard over the sternum. Longer on expiration than inspiration
bronchiectasis
lung disorder characterized by chronic dilation of the bronchi
bronchitis
inflammation of the bronchial tree accompanied by hypersecretion of mucus
bronchovesicular sound
breath sound normally heard in the area of the scapula and near the sternum; medium in pitched blowing sound, with inspiratory and expiratory phases of equal length
caseation
process whereby the center of the primary tubercle formed in the lungs as a result of tuberculosis becomes soft and cheese-like due to decreased perfusion
cavitation
process whereby a cavity is created in the lung tissue through the liquefaction and rupture of a primary tubercle
chemoreceptor
receptor that monitors the levels of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and ph in the blood
coarse crackle
moist, low-pitched crackling and gurgling lung sound of long duration
diffusion
process whereby a substance moves from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
emphysema
lung disease wherein air accumulates in the tissues of the lungs
epistaxis
hemorrhage of the nares or nostrils; also known as nosebleed
external respiration
exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the lungs
fine crackle
dry, high-pitched crackling and popping lung sounds of short duration
hemopneumothorax
presence of blood and air within the pleural space
hemothorax
condition wherein blood accumulates in the pleural space of the lungs
internal respiration
exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide at the cellular level
liquefaction necrosis
death and subsequent change of tissue to a liquid or semi-liquid state; often descriptive of a primary tubercle
lung stretch receptor
receptor that monitors the patterns of breathing and prevents overexpansion of the lungs
perfusion
blood flow through an organ or body part
pleural effusion
collection of fluid within the pleural cavity
pleural friction rub
abnormal breath sound that is creaky and grating in nature and is heard on inspiration and expiration
pleurisy
condition arising from inflammation of the pleura, or sac, that encases the lung
pneumonia
inflammation of the bronchioles and alveoli accompanied by consolidation, or solidification of exudate, in the lungs
pneumothorax
condition wherein air or gas accumulates in the pleural space of the lungs, causing the lungs to collapse
primary tubercle
nodule that contains tubercle bacilli and forms within lung tissue
respiration
process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide
sibilant wheeze
abnormal breath sound that is high pitched and musical in nature and is heard on inhalation and exhalation
sonorous wheeze
abnormal breath sound that is low pitched and snoring in nature and is louder on expiration
status asthmaticus
persistent, intractable asthma attack
stridor
high-pitched, harsh sound heard on inspiration when the trachea or larynx is obstructed
surfactant
phospholipids that are present in the lungs and lowers surface tension to prevent collapse of the airways
ventilation
movement of gases into and out of the lungs
vesicular sound
soft, breezy, low-pitched sound heard longer on inspiration than expiration resulting from air moving through the smaller airways over the lung periphery, with the exception of the scapular area
antihistamine
medications that provide symptomatic relief of allergic symptoms caused by histamine release
antitussive
medication that suppresses coughing
asthma prophylaxis
prevention of asthma
bronchodilator
medications that relax the smooth muscles of the bronchial tree, thereby relieving bronchospasm and increasing the vital capacity of the lungs
decongestants
drugs that constrict blood vessels in the respiratory tract, resulting in shrinkage of swollen mucous membranes and opened nasal airway passages
expectorant
drugs that increase secretions, reduce viscosity, and help to expel sputum
mucolytic
medication that liquefies pulmonary secretions
parasympatholytics
anticholinergics; medications that decrease the chemical that promotes bronchospasm
smoking cessation aids
medications used to slowly lower the level of nicotine while the patient participates in a behavior modification program for smoking cessation
sympathomimetic
adrenergic drug that mimics the action of the sympathetic nervous system
xanthine
medications that indirectly increase the chemical that causes bronchodilation; used particularly for treatment of acute asthmatic attacks
Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine
a vaccine containing attenuated tubercle bacilli that may be given to persons in foreign countries or to those traveling to foreign countries to produce increased resistance to tuberculosis
chronic airflow limitation, chronic obstructive lung disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
a disease state characterized by pulmonary airflow obstruction that is usually progressive, not fully reversible, and sometimes accompanied by airway hyperreactivity; airflow obstruction may be caused by chronic bronchitis and /or emphysema; in chronic hypercapnia the stimulus to breathe is a low p02 instead of an increased pc02
Mantoux test
a skin test that determines infection with tuberculosis; a small amount (0.1 ml) of intermediate-strength purified protein derivative containing 5 tuberculin units is given intradermally in the forearm; an area of induration measuring 10 mm or more in diameter, 48 to 72 hours after injection, indicates that the individual has been exposed to tuberculosis
mechanical ventilation
the use of a ventilator to move room air or oxygen-enriched air into and out of the lungs mechanically if a client is unable to ventilate enough on his or her own to maintain proper levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood
multidrug-resistant strain
a multidrug-resistant strain of tuberculosis (MDR-TB) can occur as a result of improper or noncompliant use of prescribed treatment programs and the development of mutations in the tubercle bacilli
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
the causative organism (bacillus) of tuberculosis; an aerobic bacterium that is a nonmotile, nonsporulating, acid-fast rod that secretes niacin
suctioning
a sterile procedure that involves the removal of respiratory secretions that accumulate in the trachobronchial airway when the client is unable to expectorate secretions; performed to maintain a patent airway
tuberculosis
a highly communicable disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis; tuberculosis is transmitted by the airborne route via droplet infection
The physician orders 2 to 3 L/min of oxygen to be delivered to the client with COPD because:
a higher flow rate may suppress the client's drive to breathe
A particulate respirator mask is used by the nurse caring for a client with TB because:
regular masks allow the tubercle bacilli to pass through
Incentive spirometry is used to measure the amount of air that:
is inspired with one inhalation
Asthma is characterized by:
intermittent airflow obstruction
The client with a pneumothorax experiences hypoxia due to:
compression of the lung tissue underlying the pneumothorax
fexofenadine (Allegra) is for:
allergies
nicotine (Nicoderm CQ, Habitrol) is for:
smoking cessation
guaifenesin (Mucinex, Robitussin) is for:
bronchitis (unproductive cough)
benzonatate (Tessalon) is for:
bronchitis (unproductive cough)
bupropion (Zyban) is for:
smoking cessation
beclomethasone (QVAR, Beconase AQ) is a:
corticosteroids
Theophylline (Uniphyl) is a:
Xanthines
Salmeterol (Serevent Diskus) is a:
Adrenergics (sympathomimetics)
Cromolyn sodium (Intal) is a:
Asthma prophylaxis/prevention
Tiotropium (Spriva) is a:
Parasympatholytics
Ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) is a:
Parasympatholytics
Budesonide (Pulmicort Turbuhaler) is a:
Corticosteroids
Epinephrine (Primatene, Adrenalin) is a:
Adrenergics (sympathomimetics)
Ipratropium bromide/ albuterol (Combivent, DuoNeb) is a:
Parasympatholytic/ sympathomimetic
Montelukast (Singulair) is a:
Asthma prophylaxis
Terbutaline sulfate (Brethine) is a:
Adrenergics (sympathomimetics)
Fluticasone (Flovent, Flonase) is a:
Corticosteroids
Albuterol sulfate (Proventil, Volmax) is a:
Adrenergics (sympathomimetics)
Fluticasone with salmeterol (Advair Diskus) is a:
Corticosteroids/ sympathomimetic
Zafirlukast (Accolate) is a:
Asthma prophylaxis
Mometasone (Nasonex) is a:
Corticosteroids
Levalbuterol (Xopenex) is a:
Adrenergics (sympathomimetics)
Isoproterenol (Isuprel) is a:
Adrenergics (sympathomimetics)
Triamcinolone (Azmacort, Nasacort AQ) is a:
Corticosteroids
Aminophylline is a:
Xanthines