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Cell Reproduction Part 1 (Chromosomes- Mitosis)
Terms in this set (77)
During cell division, the DNA of a eukaryotic cell's nucleus is coiled into very compact structures called __________.
Rod shaped structures made of DNA and proteins
Many layers of ____________ are required to form a chromosome
In a chromosome, what is the DNA wrapped tightly around?
What is a cluster of histones called?
What do histones do?
Help maintain the shape of the chromosome and aid in the tight packing of DNA
What do nonhistone proteins do?
Control the activity of specific regions of the DNA
What is each half of a chromosome called?
When do chromatids form?
As the DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division
When a cell divides, each new cell gains what from each chromosome?
A single chromatid (now chromosome)
What holds the two chromatids together
When does the centrosome stop holding the chromatids together?
During cell division
Besides holding the chromatids together, what are centrosomes especially important in?
The movement of chromosomes during cell division
After cell divisions what happens to chromosomes?
Why is this?
It becomes loosely coiled in the chromosomes
So they can be read and information can be used to direct cell activities
What is the less tightly coiled DNA-Protein complex called?
What are the two types of chromosomes in eukaryotes?
Sex chromosomes and autosomes
How many chromosomes in humans are autosomes?
How many copies of each autosomes are in each cell that is a product of cellular reproduction
How many copies of each autosomes for each trait does an organism receive from each parent?
What are two copies of each autosome from a mother and father called?
What is a karyotype
A photomicrograph of the chromosomes in a normal dividing cell found in a human
Cells having two sets of chromosomes are ___________.
Diploid cells have two ___________ for each ____________ pair.
Diploid cells also have two _____________.
What are diploids commonly abbreviated as?
How many pairs of homologous autosomes are in Diploids?
How many chromosomes total are in Diploids?
What are cells with one set of chromosomes?
What are the only haploid cells?
How many copies of each chromosome are in haploid cells?
What is the abbreviation for haploids?
Haploid cells have one ___________ for each ____________ pair.
Haploid cells also have one _____________.
How many chromosomes are in haploids?
What happens when two haploids combine?
A diploid is formed
What would happen if reproductive cells were diploid
The new cell would have too many chromosomes to be functional
Describe the chromosomes in eukaryotes and prokaryotes
Eukaryotes have dna coiled around proteins
Prokaryotes have a single circular rope-like chromosome
What is the process of prokaryotic cell division?
Describe binary fission
DNA is copied
The cell grows to about twice its original size
The membrane squeezes in the middle
Two new cells are formed
What in cells are distributed in eukaryotic cell division?
Chromosomes/nucleus and cytoplasm
What are the two types of cellular reproduction in eukaryotes?
What does mitosis result in?
new cells with genetic material that is identical to the genetic material of the original cell
Why do organisms need new cells
Growth, development, repair, or asexual reproduction
What is reproduction of offspring from a single parent?
What is the cellular reproduction process that creates gametes?
What does meiosis result in?
A new cell with half the amount of original chromosomes
What can each new haploid produced by meiosis have the chance to do?
Join another haploid cell to produce a diploid cell
What is the repeating set of events in the life of a cell?
The cell cycle
What is the time between cell divisions called?
How many phases are in interphase? Cell division?
What are the 3 phases of interphase?
G1 (cell growth)
S (DNA is copied)
G2 (growth and preparation for cell division)
What are the 2 phases of cell divison?
When in cell division does the nucleus divide?
When in cell division does the cytoplasm divide?
Where in the cell cycle does the cell spend most of its time?
How large are the offspring cells after cell division?
Half the size of its parent cell
What do G1, S, and G2 stand for?
What happens during G1 and G2
Cell growth and preparation (organelles are formed)
What happens during the S phase?
DNA is copied (synthesized)
When do cells usually exit the cell cycle? What stage do they enter from there?
During the G1 phase
The G0 phase
What is the G0 phase?
Name an example of a cell in the G0 phase.
The phase where DNA is not copied and growth stops?
Fully developed cells in the central nervous system stop dividing at maturity and normally never divide again.
What are the four stages of mitosis?
DNA is coiled into chromosomes, nucleolus and nuclear membrane break down, centrosomes form, spindle fibers spread out
What is a centrosome
Where do centrosomes appear?
Next to the nucleus
What are spindle fibers and what are they made of?
Microtubule fibers that help in cell division
What is the array of spindle fibers called?
What is its purpose
The mitotic spindle
To equally divide the chromosomes between two daughter cells
What are the two types of spindle fibers that make up a mitotic spindle
Describe the kinetochore fibers
Attatched to a disk like protein (kinetochore) that is found in the centromere region in each chromosome
What is the disk-shaped protein that kinetochore fibers are attached to?
Where is the kinetochore protein found on the chromosome?
Describe polar fibers
They extend across the dividing cell from centrosome to centrosome but do not attach to the chromosomes
In what phase of mitosis is it easiest to identify chromosomes through a microscope?
What phase are karyotypes based off of?
Chromosomes move to the cell equator.
What moves the chromosomes to the center of the cells and holds said chromosomes in place?
Chromosomes are split up
What part of the chromatid moves toward the cell poles first?
When are individual chromatids considered individual chromosomes?
Once they are separate
Once the chromosomes reach opposite ends of the cell, the spindle fibers disassemble, chromosomes unwind into chromatin, nuclear envelope and nucleolus reform
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