74 terms

Micro 23 Respiratory virus

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Review respiratory tract
at what temperatures do the upper vs lower respiratory normal flora grow
what type of epithelium lines the RT and what are 3 protecting enzymes
S-IgA
Lactoferrin
Lysozyme
what size of molecules don't get down to the Lower RT
greater than 5 microns
what are 6 common things that counter RT defenses
What are two groups of infective agents
what are the most common type of infections of the respiratory tract in the general population
mild common infections, sever cases are much less likely to occur

this not the case with other systems such as muscle and nervous
Generally one symptom or syndrome is caused by one pathological agent
FALSE!!!!!!

this is so false its crazy!
what kills people who are infected with influenza
secondary infection, usually bacterial
2 ways primary infections increase risk of secondary infection
review predisposing factors for RTI
List of 7 normal flora of the URT that can cause pathological infections
cory
enterobacter
haemophilus
moraxella
mycoplasma
staph
strep
what type of transmission comes from sneezing or water droplets
what is contained in a respiratory droplet from a cough or sneeze
list 4 viruses that can last for long periods on dry surfaces
5 common conditions that predispose you to endogenous infections
COPD
Cystic Fibrosis
Asthma
chronic bronchitis
aspiration pneumonia
what type of infection/transmission occurs from normal flora
endogenous
which is acute/chronic, nosocomial or Community acquired
nosocomial: acute

community: chronic
review RTI taxonomy
5 things to look for when diagnosing a RTI
seasonality and in office test are most important
which upper RTI pathogen shows no seasonality
adenovirus
generally what time of year do most RTIs occur
cold months
review RT pathogens and ways to test
what culture media is used for respiratory bacteria
6 major families of respiratory illnesses
Do all RTI agents cause most of their damage in the respiratory system
NO!!
7 viruses that directly cause RTI and their genome
review shape of adenovirus
adenovirus clinical symptoms
how is adenovirus classified
when you hear agglutination realize we are testing for Receptor
6 different ways viruses can spread
an example of a virus that causes a syncytia
measles

bumps seen in the throat are one syncytium of cells
how does adenovirus get into the cell
receptor mediated endocytosis
adeno capsid proteins
know IV for attachment. And number III The Penton fibers alone can call cell toxicity.
3 adenovirus components that alter host machinery.
3 parts of the adenovirus that are responsible for main pathogenesis
diseases caused by adenovirus
*Pneumonia (ARD)

*pharyngoconjunctival fever

Acute hemorrhagic cystitis (hematuria)
what are the two cellular outcomes of adenovirus
- Lytic mucoepithelial cells
- Latent adenoid cells (these people are infectious)
who gets infected the most with respiratory infections
children
how long can adenovirus last in the environment
7days - 3 months

non-enveloped virus (live in chlorinated pools)
how can you distinguish viral vs bacterial pharengitis from the way it looks
you can't!
Rhinoviruses
Picornavirus: Polio, Echo, Rhino, Cox, HAV (PERCH)
why does Rhinoviruses like the URT
grows at 33-35 degrees
why are there no Rhinoviruses vaccines
because of antigen shift there are hundreds of serotypes

one person can be co-infected
how does Rhinoviruses enter the cell
receptor mediated endocytosis

(non-enveloped)
what cell molecule does Rhinoviruses target
ICAM-1
what other species gets infected with Rhinoviruses
NONE! Humans only

(other primates rare)
seasonality of Rhinoviruses
march-october
what is the survival time of Rhinoviruses
2 hours - 7 days
*How does a virus travel from the eye to respiratory tract?
Coronavirus
what protein is seen on Coronavirus
S-protein attaches to cell
how does Coronavirus enter the cell
membrane fusion
(enveloped)
survival time of Coronavirus
3 hours
How many serotypes exist with Coronavirus
Responsible for common cold and SARS
what tissues are target by Coronavirus
which Coronavirus gave a epidemic scare in asia 10 years ago
SARS
MERS Co-V
recent Coronavirus in middle east that potentially can cause a epidemic

bats could be reservoir
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV)
3 HPIV factors that help with typing and identification
Paramyxoviriniae
(Pneumoviriniae causes RSV)
genetic material of HPIV
..
what is the main protein responsible for the pathogenesis of HIPV
THIS SHOULD SAY "F" PROTEINS NOT "V"
3 HPIV pathologies
Clinical Consequences of Respiratory Syncitial Virus (RSV)
What differentiates Pneumovirus from the other pramyxoviridae
No HN activity!
Laryngotracheobronchitis
aka Croup
Pathogenesis of RSV
clinical outcome of RSV
what virus vaccine can increase prevalence of disease
RSV vaccine
what is the shape of all paramyxovirus
helical (therefore all that infect people are enveloped)
Paramyxovirus review
what virus should you think of when you hear military personal with ARD
adenovirus

"military personal are the only people who get adenovirus vaccine"
what virus is associated with "swimming pool conjunctivitis"
adenovirus (it can live in chlorinated water)