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Osteogenesis Imperfecta

brittle bone disease, fractures in utero & during birth process in severe cases, multiple fractures as child grows, deformities in arms & legs, developmental growth problems, eye abnormalities, risk of hearing impairments

OT: educate/adapt on safe pursue of activities of interest, environmental risk factors, preventive positioning, protective splinting, activities to increase muscle strength, weight-bearing to facilitate bone growth

Marfan Syndrome

genetic disorder of connective tissue, tall with long limbs and fingers, defects of the heart valves & aorta, effects lungs, eyes, spinal cord, hard palate


dwarfism, short stature

Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita

a rare congenital disorder that is characterized by multiple joint contractures and can include muscle weakness and fibrosis, non-progressive disease

Congenital Clubfoot

a congenital deformity involving one foot or both, affected foot appears rotated internally at the ankle

Congenital Club Hand

a congenital deformity involving one hand or both, affected hand appears extremely radially deviated

Congenital Hip Dislocation

more common in girls, hip is developed incorrectly affecting the childs ability to walk, waddling gait


an inward curvature of a portion of the vertebral column


hunchback, is a common condition of a curvature of the upper spine


a person's spine is curved from side to side


stroke corner of mouth = tongue and mouth move toward stimulus


index finger inside mouth = strong rhythmical sucking


grasp forearms & pull to sit = flexion of upper extremities


rapidly drop head backwards = 1st phase arm extension, abduction & hand opening, 2nd phase arm flexion & adduction

Plantar Grasp

apply pressure with thumb on ball of foot = toe flexion


prone suspension, tap along spine = lateral flexion of trunk

Asymmetric Tonic Neck Reflex

fully rotate head, hold for 5 sec. = extension of extremities on face side, flexion on skull side

Palmer Grasp

finger in palm = finger flexion

Tonic Labyrinthine Supine

place infant in supine = increased extensor tone

Tonic Labyrinthine Prone

place infant in prone = increased flexor tone

Labyrinthine Optical Head Righting

infant suspended vertically, tilt slowly = upright positioning of head


hold in horizontal prone suspension = extension of head, trunk & extremities

Symmetric Tonic Neck Reflex

in crawling position, extend head = hips & knees flex

Neck Righting

in supine, turn head to one side = log rolling of entire body

Body Righting

in supine, flex one hip & knee towards chest = segmental rolling of upper trunk

Downward Parachute

rapidly lower infant to surface = extension of lower extremities

Forward Parachute

suddenly tip forward = extension of upper extremities, hand opening, neck extension

Sideward Parachute

suddenly tip to side = arm extended & abducted to side

Backward Parachute

suddenly tip backwards = backward arm extension

Prone Tilting

in prone, raise one side of surface = curving spine towards raised side

Supine Tilting

in supine, raise one side of surface = curving spine towards raised side

Quadruped Tilting

in quadruped, raise one side of surface = curving spine towards raised side

Stand Tilting

standing, raise one side of surface = curving spine towards raised side

Mobility 0-9 mos.

child should be in prone

Mobility 0-8 mos.

child should be in supine

Mobility 3-14 mos.

child should be rolling

Mobility 7-12 mos.

child should be creeping

Mobility 0-24 mos.

child should be sitting

Mobility 0-12 mos.

child should be standing

Mobility 8-18 mos.

child should be walking

Mobility 0-15 mos.

child should be releasing

Mobility 15 mos.-3 1/2 yrs.

child should be climbing stairs

Mobility 2-6 yrs.

child should be jumping & hopping

Grasp 4 mos.

child should have primitive squeeze

Grasp 5 mos.

child should have palmer grasp

Grasp 6 mos.

child should have radial-palmer grasp

Grasp 8 mos.

child should have radial-digital grasp

Grasp 9 mos.

child should have inferior pincer grasp

Grasp 12 mos.

child should have fine pincer grasp

Grasp 1-1 1/2 yrs.

child should have palmer-supinate grasp

Grasp 2-3 yrs.

child should have digital pronate grasp

Grasp 3 1/2-4 yrs.

child should have static tripod grasp

Grasp 4 1/2-6 yrs.

child should have dynamic tripod grasp

Manipulating Skills

finger to palm (picking up coins) 12-15 mos.
palm to finger (placing coins in slot) 2- 2 1/2 yrs.
simple rotation (unscrewing bottle cap) 2- 2 1/2 yrs.
shift (separating 2 peices of paper) 3- 3 1/2 yrs.
complex rotation (turning pencil over to erase) 6-7 yrs.
in-hand manipulation (manipulating more than one object in hand at same time) 6-7 yrs.

Scissor Use 2-3 yrs.

shows interest in scissors, holds them & snips, opens & closes

Scissor Use 3-4 yrs.

manipulates scissors forward, coordinates lateral, cuts straight, cuts geometric shapes, cuts circles

Scissor Use 4-7 yrs.

cuts simple & complex figures ( dog or person )

Scissor Grasp

inferior scissor grasp 7 mos.
scissor grasp 8 mos.
inferior pincer grasp 9 mos.
pincer grasp 10 mos.
fine pincer grasp 12 mos.

Play 0-2 yrs.

exploratory play

Play 2-4 yrs.

symbolic play

Play 4-7 yrs.

creative play

Play 7-12 yrs.


Self-feeding 5-7 mos.

takes cereal or poured baby food from spoon

Self-feeing 6-8 mos.

attempts to hold bottle

Self-feeding 6-9 mos.

holds & tries to eat cracker, sucks on it instead, consumes soft foods, grabs spoon but bangs it or sucks on it

Self-feeding 9-13 mos.

finger-feeds macaroni, peas, dry cereal

Self-feeding 12-14 mos.

dips spoon in food, brings spoon to mouth but spills

Self-feeding 15-18 mos.

scoops food with spoon & brings to mouth

Self-feeding 24-30 mos.

demonstrates interest in using fork stabbing food such as: canned fruit, proficient use of spoon, eats cereal with milk

Self-dressing 1 yr.

holds out arms & feet, pulls off shoes, removes socks, pushes arms through sleeves & legs through pants

Self-dressing 2 yrs.

removes unfastened coat, removes untied shoes, helps pull down pants

Self-dressing 2 1/2 yrs.

removes elastic pants, assists in pulling off socks, puts on front button coat or shirt, unbuttons large buttons

Self-dressing 3 yrs.

puts on pullover shirt, shoes without fasteners, socks, independently pulls down pants, zips & unzips, buttons large buttons

Self-dressing 3 1/2 yrs.

finds front of clothing, snaps & hooks, unzips & zips, puts on mittens, unbuckles, dresses with supervision

Self-dressing 4 yrs.

removes pullover shirt, buckles belt or shoes, zips, puts on socks, puts on shoes with assist with laces, laces shoes, identifies back & front of shirt

Self-dressing 4 1/2 yrs.

puts belt in loops

Self-dressing 5 yrs.

ties & unties knots, dresses unsupervised

Self-dressing 6 yrs.

independent in all dressing

Toileting 1 yr.

indicates discomfort when wet or soiled

Toileting 1 1/2 yrs.

sits on toilet supervised when placed there

Toileting 2 yrs.

urinates regularly

Toileting 2 1/2 yrs.

occassional daytime accidents, rarely bowel accidents, tells someone when needs to go to bathroom, may need help on toilet

Toileting 3 yrs.

goes to bathroom independently, may need help with wiping, may need help with fasteners

Toileting 4-5 yrs.

independent with toileting

Household Management 13 mos.

imitates housework

Household Management 2 yrs.

picks up & puts away toys with reminders, copies parents

Household Management 3 yrs.

carries things without dropping them, dusts with help, dries dishes with help, gardens with help, wipes up spills

Household Management 4 yrs.

fixes dry cereal & snacks, helps with sorting laundry

Household Management 5 yrs.

puts away toys neatly, makes a sandwich, takes out trash, makes bed, puts dirty clothes in hamper, makes bed, answer phone correctly

Household Management 6 yrs.

does simple errands, does household chores without redoing, cleans sink, washes dishes with help, crosses street safely

Household Management 7-9 yrs.

begins to cook simple meals, puts clean clothes away, hangs up clothes, manages small amount of money, uses telephone correctly

Household Management 10-12 yrs.

cooks simple meals with supervision, does simple repairs with tools, begins doing laundry, sets table, washes dishes, cares for pet with reminders

Household Management 13-14 yrs.

does laundry, cooks meals, independent in household management

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