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Nutrition Ch 3: (The Basics of Digestion)

Terms in this set (189)

Digesting a Peanut Butter Sandwich

Organ: ______h Function: Begins breaking down food breaking into food components through chewing. How they work together to digest PB sandwich: Saliva moistens the sandwich as your teeth grind the food. Amylase begins to break down the carbohydrate in the bread.

Organ: _________s Function: Transfers food from the mouth to the stomach. How they work together to digest PB sandwich: Bolus of sandwich moves through this tube to the stomach.

Organ: ________s (LES, pyloric, ileocecal) Function: Keep swallowed food from returning to the esophagus, stomach, or small intestine. How they work together to digest PB sandwich: The LES makes sure that the sandwich stays in the stomach once it gets there.

Organ: _________h Function: Mixes food with digestive juices; breaks down some nutrients into smaller components. How they work together to digest PB sandwich: The HCl activates pepsin to begin digesting the protein in the sandwich. Gastric lipase starts breaking down the triglycerides in the PB.

Organ: _____l ________e Function: Completes digestion of food and absorbs nutrients through its walls. How they work together to digest PB sandwich: The CHOs, proteins, and fat are broken down further with the help of bile and other enzymes so they can be absorbed.

Organ: _____e ________e Function: Absorbs water and some nutrients; passes waste products out of the body. How they work together to digest PB sandwich: The fiber in the bread leaves the body in the stool.

Organ: _________y ________s [liver, gallbladder, pancreas] Function: Release hormones & enzymes, + help break down food or direct digestive activity. How they work together to digest PB sandwich:
One of the more serious malabsorption conditions to occur in the small intestine is called c_______ disease. A healthy SI contains numerous villi and microvilli that efficiently and exhaustively absorb nutrients from food. Some people (1/133 Americans), have a lining of the SI that flattens out due to an autoimmune reaction to gluten, a protein found in wheat & other grains. This reduces the intestine's ability to absorb nutrients.

Exact cause of the disease is unknown, but believed to be genetic. More common among those of European descent. Risk of the disease may be decreased by breast-feeding instead of bottle-feeding infants. Sometimes detected orr caused by surgery, pregnancy, a viral infection, or severe emotional stress.

Symptoms: Reoccuring abdominal bloating, cramping, diarrhea, gas, fatty + foul-smelling stools, weight loss, anemia, fatigue, bone or joint pain, or even a painful skin rash. Some develop the symptoms of the disease in infancy or childhood. Others later in life, after being misdiagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome or various food intolerances.

Diagnosing is sometimes difficult because it resembles other v similar malabsorption diseases. Depending on the length of time between symptom dvlpment and diagnosis, the complications from celiac disease can be serious: increased incidence of osteoporosis from poor calcium absorption, diminished growth because of nutrient malabsorption, and even seizures due to inadequate folate absorption.

Treatment Only Tx is a gluten-free diet. This should stop symptoms from progressing, lets intestines heal, and prevents further damage. Symptoms usually improve within a few days after beginning gluten-free diet. In 3-6 months, absorption area of the intestinal tract often returns to normal status, if diet followed faithfully. Depending on age at diagnosis and severity of the disease, there may be some permanent health problems like delayed or stunted growth.

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