Honors US History- Progressive Unit

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What were the three goals of the Progressives?
1. make government more democratic
2. reverse the tide greed and corruption growing from the new industrial age
3. greater economic opportunity for all by regulating the powerful business and money interests
What was the name of writers who exposed the injustices and corruption of politics and business?
muckrakers
Give four examples of muckrakers.
Lincoln Steffens, Ida Tarbell, Upton Sinclair, and Jacob Riis
Which Muckraker wrote about honesty in government and felt it the major problem in society was caused by the demand for special privileges from government?
Lincoln Steffens
What was the name of the set of magazine articles Ida Tarbell wrote?
History of the Standard Oil Company
What did Ida Tarbell write about?
she exposed the evils and corruption of John D Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company
What was the name of the muckraker who exposed the unsanitary conditions in meat-paling plants/
Upton Sinclair
What was the name of Upton Sinclair's book?
The Jungle
Which muckraker wrote about how people in poverty lived?
Jacob Riis
What did Jacob Riis do to get his message across?
took photos of the ghetto and poor neighborhoods in New York City and published them in his book
What was the name of the book Jacob Riis wrote?
How the Other Half Lives
What was the name of the Wisconsin governor and senator who was one of the greatest leaders of the Progressive Movement?
Robert M La Follete, Fighting Bob
What were some things Fighting Bob did as governor of Wisconsin?
increased taxes and regulation of railroads and public utilities, focused on conservation of Wisconsin's forests and water-power sites
What was the name of the idea to use scholars from the local university as advisors, regulators, and legal assistants?
the Wisconsin Idea
What were the six things put in place to give greater control of the government to the people?
Australian ballot, Initiative, Referendum, Recall, Direct Primary, and Direction Election of US Senators
What was the name of the ballot which had the names of candidates printed on a single sheet of paper and voters could cast their ballots in secret?
Australian Ballot
What was the name of the change the allowed citizens to write their own bills and them placed before the state legislature if a petition with the names of 5-15% of the voters was attached to the proposed law?
Initiative
What was the name of the change that allowed citizens to write their own bills and have them placed on the election ballot for voters to vote on?
referendum
What was the difference between an initiative and referendum?
An initiative was placed before state legislatures and a referendum was placed election ballots for voters to vote on
What was the name of an election held several months prior to the general election in which the registered voters from each political party selected their nominee for office?
direct primary
What replaced the old method of professional politicians choosing the party's candidate at political conventions without the input of the people?
direct primary
Which amendment included the direct election of US Senators?
17th amendment
What did the 17th amendment state?
two US Senators from each state will be elected by the people of that state directly
What did the 17th amendment change?
the state legislatures would no longer choose senators
What does the phrase "The Square Deal" mean in relation to Theodore Roosevelt?
he was fair to all people
Who wins the election of 1900?
William McKinley
Who was the vice presidential candidate in the election of 1900?
Theodore Roosevelt
Why was Roosevelt chosen to run with McKinley?
he was very energetic and progressive, many powerful people did not want him serving in the government in New York where he was, including Marcus Hanna, so they decided to place him in the least powerful position in government
Describe Roosevelt.
he was very independent, did not take orders from conservative Republicans and party bosses
What was Roosevelt's main focus?
having a strong army and navy
What was Roosevelt's key phrase?
"Speak softly and carry a big stick"
What does Roosevelt's saying mean?
you are friendly to other countries and work responsibly, but if they refuse to compromise and work with you, you have a powerful military behind their back
What did Roosevelt use the presidency as?
a bully pit
What is meant by that fact that Roosevelt used the presidency as a bully pit?
he made issues important by talking to the public about them
How many cases involving trusts were brought to courts during the Roosevelt administration?
44
What was Roosevelt the first president to do?
actively use the Sherman Anti-Trust Act to break up trusts
How did Roosevelt define trusts?
as either good or bad for the public
What was the name of the law that prohibited manufacturers from accepting a rebate from a railroad?
Elkins Act of 1903
Why was McKinley confident he would win the election of 1900?
business was booming and he had just lead the US to victory in a war against Spain
Who went on strike in 1902 and created a national crisis?
anthracite coal miners from Pennsylvania
What was the name of the coal miners union?
United Mine Workers Union
Who was the leader of United Mine Workers Union?
John Mitchell
What were the three things the coal miners wanted?
9 hour-day, 20% wage increase, and recognition of their union
What did Roosevelt do to end the coal strike?
he brought in the miners and mine owners in an attempt to settle their differences
What did Roosevelt threaten the mine owners with?
the possibility of him sending in the army and taking over the mines from the owners
What did Roosevelt have to use to get the coal miners and mine owners to agree?
arbitration, a middle man who would help the two come to an agreement
What was the decision made to end the coal strike?
workers received a 9 hour-day, 10% wage increase, and set up a board of conciliation (did not truly get recognition of their union)
Who were the candidates in the election in 1904?
Theodore Roosevelt and Judge Alton B Parker
Who won the election of 1904?
Theodore Roosevelt
What was Theodore Roosevelt's political standing?
He was a progressive republican
What'd medicines often contain?
addictive drugs and alcohol, they claimed impossible healing powers
What was the name of the novel that described the killing of diseased animals and the filth in the meat-packing industry?
The Jungle by Upton Sinclair
What did the Meat Inspection Act of 1906 require?
federal inspection of all meats which crossed state lines
What did the Pure Food and Drugs Act of 1906 require?
1. prevented the manufacture, sale, or transportation of impure or harmful foods and medicines
2. required patent medicines to have truthful labels listing ingredients
By 1900, how much of the country's forests were still standing?
25%
What were some reasons the country's natural landscape was being destroyed?
1. cattlemen and sheepherders overgrazed the grasslands
2. coal companies left abandoned mines
3. cities polluted rivers and streams with industrial sewage
How did Roosevelt make conservation a national crusade?
by reminding Americans that materials, coal, iron, oil, and gas were not renewable
How many acres of land did T.R. remove from public sale during his administration?
150 million acres
What was the name of the law passed in 1902 in regards to conservation?
Newlands Reclamation Act
What did the Newlands Reclamation Act state?
money from the sale of western public lands was to be used for irrigation and other projects designed for the reclamation of wastelands
Who picked the Republican candidate in the election of 1908?
Teddy Roosevelt
Who was the republican candidate in the election of 1908?
William Howard Taft
Who was the democratic candidate in the election of 1908?
William Jennings Bryan
What was the Taft's platform in the election of 1908?
strengthen the interstate commerce commission and Sherman anti trust act, conservation, improve highways
What was the Bryan's platform in the election of 1908?
lower tariff, income tax, more antitrust laws, restrictions on injunctions
Who was the winner of the election of 1908?
William Howard Taft
What did the Hepburn Act of 1906 do?
1. reinforce the Interstate Commerce Act
2. increase membership on the commission from seven
3. restricted granting of free passes
4. prohibited railroads from carrying freight produced by themselves
5. commissions orders made binding pending a court decision
6. gave commission power to prescribe uniform accounting methods
7. gave commission power to fix maximum railroad rates
What did the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 do?
1. prohibited rebates
2. prohibited pools
3. prohibited charging more for short haul than a long haul
4. required railroads to publicize rates and file them with the government
5. required railroads to fix reasonable rates
6. established a five person interstate commerce commission
What did the Mann Elkins Act do?
1. placed telephone, telegraph, cable, and wireless companies under ICC jurisdiction
2. empowered commission to suspend new rates for jurisdiction
3. provided for effective enforcement of the long and short haul clause
What is another name for the Progressive Party?
Bull-Moose Party
How many trusts did Taft prosecute during his administration?
90
What were the three things Taft did to lose Progressive support?
pass the Payne-Aldrich Tariff, side with Richard A Ballinger and fire Gifford Pinchot, and stand behind Joseph Cannon
What was the Payne-Aldrich tariff?
a high protective tariff that was supported by president Taft
What was the result of Taft firing Gifford Pinchot and standing behind Richard A Ballinger on the conservation issue?
Taft was perceived as weak on the conservation issue and the Republicans lost the House to the Democrats
What was one of the first things Wilson call for?
a lower tariff
Why did Wilson call for a lower tariff?
he said American industries no longer needed this protection
What did the Underwood Tariff Act do?
reduced tariffs to their lowest point in 50 years
What did the Underwood Tariff Act do besides lower tariffs?
provided for a graduated income tax between 1 and 6 percent
What did the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 do?
declared illegal several business practices that had been used by large companies to gain monopoly status and restrict competition
What did the Clayton Antitrust Act do besides regulate business?
legalized labor unions and restricted injunctions
Why was the Federal Trade Commission formed?
used to prevent the growth of monopolies
How many people were members of the Federal Trade Commission and what did they do?
five and they regulated industries in foreign or interstate trade
What did the federal Trade Commission give corporations?
cease and desist order to stop unfair methods of unfair competition
Who supported the federal trade commission's cease and desist orders?
the government