140 terms


Which organs do the circulatory and respiratory system share?
Lungs, heart, blood vessels
What are the 11 systems of the body?

What does Sagittal/Median mean in terms of the body?
The cytoskeleton consists of what three types of molecules/what are their functions?
microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments
functions: shape, support, movement
What is the main function of the golgi apparatus?
Receiving, modifying, and transporting proteins for secretions from the cell
What is the
lipid metabolism
storage of calcium ions
detoxification of toxins
What is the cell wall?
An outside, rigid layer that helps separate the inside and outside of the cell
What is cytoplasm?
Protein rich gel fluid that houses organelles
Bacteria are what type of cells?
What is a nucleoid?
The condensed DNA of the cell. contains genes and the genetic blueprints for the formation of proteins that make up the machinery of the cell
What are plasmids?
Small, circular portions of DNA (not chromosomal DNA) contain small number of genes
What is a function of ribosomes?
Produces PROTEIN from RNA
What are eukarya?
Have eukaryotic cells which are more complex and much larger than prokaryotic cells
What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
Transport channel within the cell for proteins from one part of the cell to another and in and out of the cell
What are the three types of VESICLES?
Peroxisomes, Lysosomes, and Vacuoles
What organ contains peroxisomes?
what are microtubules?
Move vesicles, granules, organelles like mitochondria, and chromosomes via special attachment proteins. During mitosis, form the mitotic spindle
What does the nucleolus do?
Produce ribosomes that get moved to the cytoplasm to make cell proteins
What organelles occur ONLY in ANIMAL cells and are involved in cell division where they produce SPINDLES?
Centrioles and centrosomes
What occurs only in plant cells?
Cell plate and chloroplasts
What organelle is NOT involved in protein synthesis?
How many lobes does the right lung have?
How many lobes does the left lung have?
Which lung is larger?
the right lung
Oxygen exchange in the lungs occurs through what process?
Describe the rate of diffusion in the lungs.
Rate of diffusion is directly proportional to surface area and concentration gradient. Inversely proportional to the distance between two solutions. Oxygen in the lungs moves into the blood and carbon dioxide in the blood moves into the lungs to be exhaled
Describe the process of inspiration
Diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract to increase volume and decrease pressure in the lungs
Describe the process of expiration
Diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract to decrease volume and increase pressure in the lungs
What is tidal volume?
Amount of air breathed in and out of the lungs
What does residual capacity mean in the body?
It indicates when air is trapped in alveoli after expiration
Breathing control centers are located where in the brain?
Medulla oblongata of the brainstem
What is Cystic Fibrosis?
Genetic disorder that affects the lungs and other organs, difficulty breathing, coughing up sputum, lung infections
What is prefusion?
Passage of fluid to an organ or a tissue
What secretes surfactant and what is it's function?
Alveoli, reduces friction in the lungs
What is not sensed by the medulla oblongata?
Oxygen levels
At the end of a sprint are carbon dioxide levels high or low? Is pH increased or decrease? Is blood acidity increased or decreased?
Carbon dioxide is high, pH is decreased, acidity is increased
What happens when the residual volume of the lung is reduced?
Causes higher inspiratory volume and an oxygen gradient
What is walking pneumonia caused by?
Mycoplasma infection
What is influenza caused by?
What is the main function of Circulatory (cardiovascular) system?
Movement of blood and lymph around the body, which permits nutrient distribution, transport chemical messengers and immune molecules, waste removal, communication and protection.
Define the closed circulatory system?
double loop system, think walled arteries that transport blood away from the heart. Thinner walled arteries that transport blood to the heart. capillaries made of single layered epithelium (connect arteries to veins in tissue)
What is the open lymphatic system?
Circulates and filters interstitial fluid between cells and drains into the circulatory system
What is the pulmonary loop?
Deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium
What is the systemic loop?
Oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the body returning deoxygenated blood to the right atrium
What is the "lub" in regards to heart sounds?
This noise occurs when the tricuspid and Mitral close while pulmonary and aortic open
What is the "dub" in regards to heart sounds?
it's when the Pulmonary valve and aortic valve close and the Tricuspid and Mitral valve open
what are lymphocytes?
Small and round type of white blood cell. B cells (make antibodies) and T cells (cell mediated immunity)
what is lymph?
PLASMA with the red blood cells removed
what is plasma?
Component of blood that carries red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets throughout the body
Excretory functions are preformed by what?
Kidney nephrons, skin sweat glands, and lung alveoli
What increases after a vaccination?
Where is the SA "pacemaker" located?
Top part of the right atrium
What is the most abundant white blood cell?
What is an aneurysm?
Excessive localized ENLARGEMENT of an artery caused by a weakening of the artery wall. Can rupture and cause stroke
What is the function of the pulmonary vein?
Carries oxygenated blood from the lungs TOWARD the heart
what are the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system?
Rest and Digest
Increased saliva
Release digestive enzymes
Heart rate drops
Muscles relax
Urinary output increases
Pupils constrict
what are the actions of the sympathetic nervous system?
Fight or Flight
Heart rate increases
Pupils dilate
Muscles contract
Reduced saliva
Slows down digestion
more glycogen to glucose
what does deglutition mean?
What is the first part of the small intestine?
What are the three main secretions of the stomach?
Pepsinogen (chief cells)
Mucus (goblet cells)
Hydrochloric acid (parietal cells)
what are granulocytes?
Basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils
Visible granules

"Ben is Grand"
what are agranulocytes?
Lymphocytes and monocytes
No visible grains
Leukocytes are made where and by what?
Red bone marrow by hematopoietic stem cells
What is the largest type of white blood cell?
What is the least frequent type of white blood cell?
what does it mean when someone has leukocytosis?
High white blood cell count
what are the accessory digestive organs?
Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
What are the secretions of the stomach?
- Gastric juices (contains HCL to kill bacteria and denature protein)
- Pepsin (begins digestion of proteins)
- Intrinsic factor (absorption of vitamin B12)
- Gastric lipase (digestion of triglycerides)
- Gastrin
- Ghrelin
what are the layers of stomach (deep to surface)?
What is the function of the enzyme gastric lipase in the stomach?
Splits triglycerides in fat molecules into fatty acids and monoglycerides
What is absorbed by the stomach?
Small amount of nutrients because epithelial cells are impermeable to most material. some water, short-chain fatty acids, certain drugs like aspirin and alcohol
what is the function of the pancreas?
To produce DIGESTIVE JUICES that are released into the small intestine. produces insulin
what is the function of the liver?
To filter toxins from blood and make bile. Converts ammonia to urea
what is the function of the small intestine?
Where the most nutrients is absorbed
what is the function of the large intestine?
Absorb water
What prevents reflux of food back into the esophagus?
Gastric sphincter
Where is vitamin K absorbed?
Large intestine
what is the function of the gallbladder
Store bile
What are the 3 parts of the small intestine?
Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What hormone induces hunger?
What hormone induces satiety?
what are the secretions of the pancreas?
Pancreatic juice (bicarbonate, lipase, trypsinogen) proteases, and amylase. Secretin, somatostatin, insulin, glucagon
what are the secretions of the small intestine?
Proteases, lactase, disaccharides, cholecystokinin, somatostatin, secretin, motilin
What converts ammonia to urea?
What produces the majority of digestive enzymes?
Stomach and intestines
The digestive system is controlled by what nervous system?
what are the sphincters of the alimentary canal?
- Upper and lower esophageal sphincters: connects esophagus to stomach
- Pyloric sphincter: connects stomach to duodenum
- Ileocecal valve: connects small and large intestine
- Internal and external anal sphincters rectum and anus
what is the zymogen form of protease that is released by the stomach?
what are the cells that produce acid in the stomach?
Parietal cells
what is the valve through which chyme passes from stomach to duodenum?
Pyloric sphincter
what is the hormone produced by stomach that induces stomach secretions?
what is the hormone that induces bile and pancreatic juice secretion?
what is the second section of small intestine where MAJORITY of absorption occurs?
which blood vessel that carries nutrients directly from SMALL INTESTINE to LIVER?
Hepatic portal vein
Somatic (voluntary) nervous system controls what?
Move skeletal muscles
what is actin?
Thin filamented protein that is in association with myosin
what is myosin?
a fibrous protein that forms filaments of muscle cells
What process describes how a signal travels across a nerve synapse?
What is the primary component of muscles?
What is fat responsible for?
Storing energy and protecting nerve cells
what are ganglia?
Small masses of nervous tissue consisting primarily of neuron cell bodies that are located outside of the brain and spinal cord
what are enteric plexuses?
Networks of neurons located in the walls of organs of the GI tract. Neurons of these plexuses help regulate the digestive system
what are sensory receptors?
Specialized nerve cell that is designed to respond to a specific sensory stimulus
What are the 3 types of sensory receptors?
1. Exteroceptors 2.Interoceptors 3.Proprioceptors
What are exteroceptors?
Receive sensory information from outside of the body. Examples: Visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory, and olfactory
What are Interoceptors?
Receive sensory information from inside the body. Detect internal body sensation. Examples: from the viscera (hollow organs), stomach pain, pinched spinal nerves, and deep skin inflammation
What are proprioceptors?
UNCONSCIOUS information received. Detect BODY POSITION in space and movement. Located in the muscles, tendons, and joints inside the body and semicircular canals of the inner ear
what are visceral receptors?
Respond to pressure and pain from the internal organs
what is the enteric nervous system?
Governs contractions of GI tract smooth muscle to propel food through the GI tract
3 Functions of the nervous system
- Sensory (detect internal or external stimuli)
- Integrative (process sensory information, integration)
- Motor (Elicit an appropriate motor response by activating effectors (muscles and glands) through cranial and spinal nerves
What is an effector?
Muscles or glands
what are Multipolar Neurons and where they are found?
they are made of several dendrites and one axon. most neurons in the brain and spinal cord are this type as well as all motor neurons
what are Bipolar neurons and where they are found?
One main dendrite and one axon. Retina of the eye, inner ear, olfactory area
what are Unipolar neurons?
Dendrites and one axon that are fused together to form a continuous process that emerges from the cell body. Begin in embryo as bipolar neurons. Most function as SENSORY receptors. Cell bodies of most unipolar neurons are located in the ganglia of spinal and cranial nerves
what are neuroglia?
Make up half the volume of the CNS. Holds nervous tissue together
what are neuroglia of the CNS?
Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells
what are neuroglia in the PNS?
Schwann cells and satellite cells
what is a nerve?
Long bundles of axons that transmit signals from the central nervous system
The rate of chemical reaction doesn't depend on?
Amount of mass lost
What is the longest phase of the cell cycle?
If a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, what will happen to the cell?
It will shrink
what is a Solute (DRUG)?
Substance that is dissolved
what is a solvent (LIQUID)?
What the substance is dissolved in
Which antibody-secreting cell is triggered to proliferate upon vaccination?
What produces ammonia by deamination in the liver?
What lymphatic capillaries absorb fats?
what is the urethra?
Connects the bladder to the exterior of the female body
what is the vas deferens?
The duct in which sperm moves from a testicle to the urethra
Where does the fertilized egg embed itself?
Endometrium of the uterine wall
Where is estrogen produced?
What causes a developing egg to be released?
LH from the pituitary
Where is progesterone produced?
Corpus luteum
What connects the ovaries to the uterus?
Fallopian tubes
What is the role of the prostate?
Creating fluid to transfer sperm
Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone
Stimulates the anterior pituitary to release FSH and LH
what are sertoli cells?
Located in seminiferous tubules and nourish developing sperm cells
what are lobules?
Made up of seminiferous tubules which are the site of sperm production
what are lydig cells?
Secrets testosterone
what are myoid cells?
Contract to move sperm
A primary spermatocyte gives rise to how many sperm?