Ch. 6: Memory Strategies and Metacognition (Cognition by Margaret Matlin)
Terms in this set (31)
Mental activity, such as rehearsal, that enhances memory performance.
A person's ability to think about her own thinking; requires self-awareness and self-regulation of thinking.
levels of processing
Shows that yo will generally recall information more accurately if you process it at a deep level, rather than a shallow level
Repeating information you want to learn
Finding that information bearing on the self is processed more thoroughly and more deeply, and hence remembered better, than other information.
The principle stating that recall is better if the retrieval context is similar to the encoding context. In contrast, forgetting often occurs when the two contexts do not match.
Principle stating that the amount a person learns relates to the total amount of time she devotes to learning.
distributed-practice effect (spacing effect)
Finding that people learn more if they spread their learning trials over time, rather than learning the material all at once.
In memory, the situation in which the learning trials are spread over time, rather than learning material all at once.
Learning material all at once, rather than spreading learning trials over time.
A learning situation that is somewhat challenging, but not too difficult. This situation enhances long-term recall.
Enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply reading, information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning.
Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
Mental representations of stimuli that are not physically present.
A memory strategy in which the learner identifies an English word (the keyword) that sounds similar to the new word; then an image is created that links the keyword with the meaning of the new word.
method of loci
A memory strategy in which items to be remembered are associated with a series of physical locations, arranged in a specific sequence; during recall, the person reviews the items in order to retrieve the information.
The attempt to bring systematic order to the material to be learned.
Combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short-term memory.
A memory organizational strategy in which items are arranged in a series of classes, from the most general classes to the most specific.
A memory strategy in which the first letter of each word to be remembered is used to compose a word or sentence.
A memory organizational method that creates stories to link a series of words together.
A theory of memory improvement that emphasizes a comprehensive approach to memory problems including attention to physical and mental health, in addition to memory strategies.
A flexible approach to the world, with a sensitivity to new things and an appreciation for new ways of approaching a problem.
Remembering to do things in the future.
Remembering events from the past or previously learned information.
external memory aid
Any device, external to one's self, which facilitates memory in some way, and is especially helpful on prospective-memory tasks. For example, wearing 8 rubber bands on the wrist to remind you to drink 8 glasses of water.
Knowledge and awareness of a person's own memory.
The tendency to overestimate the number of correct answers they will give on a future test.
The temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that it's just out of reach.
feeling of knowing
In memory, the prediction about whether one could correctly recognize the correct answer to a question if presented with several options.
Thoughts about a person's own comprehension.
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