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Drug Calculations and Dosage
Terms in this set (147)
What should technicians do in order to be considered proficient?
Interpret prescribers' orders correctly
Due to the illegibility of many doctors' handwriting, what is the responsibility of the pharmacy?
Interpret and clarify orders if necessary
What used in prescribing medication look very much alike?
Where does Pharmacy and medical terminology come from?
Latin and Greek languages
What serves as universal languages in medicine?
Latin and Greek
Because pharmacy began in Europe, how do most abbreviations have their origins?
In a foreign language
What must technicians learn to decipher prescribers' orders?
All the dosage forms and abbreviations
What are abbreviated on prescriptions in which many pharmacy computers are programmed to accept these abbreviations?
What did drug errors that have occurred as a result of the misinterpretation of medication orders lead to the creation of?
"Do Not Use" list
What does the "Do Not Use" list outline?
The most common misread abbreviations
What five classifications can drugs be put into different groups based on?
2) Intent of use
3) Route of administration
4) Mechanism of action
5) Body system affected
What are the three classifications used to describe the drugs available to consumers?
1) Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs
2) Legend drugs
3) Behind-the-counter (BTC) drugs
What is the means by which a drug is available for use?
Which ways can tablets be created?
Scored or unscored and coated or uncoated and some can be split in half
How is the dosage form primarily determined?
Which form makes the drug most effective
How do manufacturers prepare certain medications?
With the ability to release the active ingredient over an extended period
What are the three major categories of dosage forms?
What can be contained in various packages and administered by almost all routes except parenterally?
What do most solids contain?
Fillers (inert substances that have no active ingredient), sugar coatings, and certain additives
What can be made to be administered sublingually (SL) or vaginally?
How can tablets be made to protect the drug through the acidic environment of the stomach or to delay release of the drug?
What are convenient for children and people who have difficulty swallowing?
What types of tablets are made to control the amount of drug distributed over a set time?
What improves the taste and covers unpleasant odors of tablets?
What are smooth sided and easier to swallow than tablets?
What can have either a hard or soft outer shell?
What are composed of sugar, gelatin, and water?
What is a type of capsule that is shaped differently for identification purposes?
What is a capsule that can be pulled apart to sprinkle the medication onto food for children?
What cannot be pulled apart and often hold medications in liquid form?
Soft-gelatin capsules (gel caps)
What is a type of tablet that is meant to dissolve in the mouth that is flat, larger than normal-size, and has a chalky consistency?
What are polymers (long chains of hydrocarbons) that combine with or encapsulate a drug?
What can be capsules, tablets, or implants?
What drug can be activated by pH or solubility and released over a period of 12 hours to several years?
What is a special type of capsule can be implanted under the skin?
How long can implants be left under the skin for?
Up to 5 years
What containing progestin are implanted?
How is medication is released with an implant?
In a stair-step method
What are solid pieces of material that hold a specific amount of medication to be released into the skin over time?
What can be easily administered and eliminate the possibility of an upset stomach?
How should transdermal patches be disposed of?
Should be folded in half with the sticky parts together
What kind of transdermal patch is used for angina?
What kind of transdermal patch is used for chronic pain?
What kind of transdermal patch is used for motion sickness?
What are composed of various solutions, be administered by all routes, and a
good option for young children?
What are sugar-based liquid solutions in which medication has been dissolved in them and improve the taste of the drug that tend to be thicker than water?
What contain dissolved liquid medication in either an alcohol base or a (hydroalcoholic) base?
What usually covers up the bad taste of the drug in elixirs?
What have the same consistency as water?
What are composed of various bases, such as alcohol or water, in a pump-type dispenser?
What is is used under the tongue for relief of anginal pain?
Nitroglycerin translingual spray
What are available in a variety of forms, but all must be easily inhaled into the lungs?
What are common inhalant devices available OTC?
Vaporizers and humidifiers
What do respiratory therapists use to give breathing treatments to hospital patients?
What are inhaled solutions administered by an anesthesiologist during surgery?
What devices dispense a specific amount of drug with each puff?
Metered dose inhalers (MDIs)
What is a mixture of water and oil bound together by an emulsifier?
What is a liquid in which very small, solid particles suspended in the base solution?
What can be used orally by children and older adults and should have a sticker and an expiration date?
Why might Enemas be administered for?
Retention or evacuation
What can be used to deliver medication to the body, bypassing the stomach for absorption?
What is the most common use of enemas?
Evacuate the lower intestine to prepare for surgeries or for women in labor
What contain both liquids and solids
and are meant for topical application?
What is a semisolid medication in a base that is part oil and part water and used for topical use?
What semisolid medication is thinner than creams because the base contains more water?
What is a semisolid medication in a glycol or oil base that covers the skin's surface and keeps out moisture?
What is a semisolid medication in a viscous (thick) liquid that easily penetrates the skin?
What is a semisolid medication that contains a smaller amount of liquid base than solids and is able to absorb skin secretions, unlike other topical agents?
What can be used both rectally and vaginally?
What bypass the stomach, which is important if the patient has nausea and vomiting(systemic)?
What are used mainly to treat vaginal infections?
What are solids, yet they can be packaged in some forms that allow them to be sprayed, similar to liquid dosage forms?
What is one of the main uses of powders?
Reduce the amount of moisture in an area, they ease of application, and they can cover a large area
What medications are very convenient, do not need to be measured, are less expensive, systemic, and safe, but do not work as quickly as parenterals?
Why are some drugs unable to be taken orally?
They are not as effective
What is the most commonly used sublingual tablet?
What are placed between the gum and cheek, where the medication penetrates the mouth lining and then enters the bloodstream?
What are used for a person who is vomiting and cannot take oral medications?
Rectal (PR) agents
What can be administered rectally to reduce inflammation?
Ointments or creams in addition to suppositories
What usually work on a specific site and not systemically?
What are uncomfortable and the actual amount of drug absorbed is hard to predict?
What effects range from systemic to localized (for rashes)?
What is the function of topical drugs?
Fight skin infections, inflammation, and block UV rays of the sun
What type of drug works at the site of action and systemically?
What is an advantage of topical drugs?
What is a disadvantage of topical drugs?
May cause a reaction
What term is Greek in origin and means "side of intestine" or "outside of intestine"?
How are the most common parenteral medications are given?
IV, IM, or SC
What does the the length of parenteral needles depend on?
The injection site
Who can the quick response of parenteral medications be beneficial to?
Those who are combative or are unable to swallow
What are the three disadvantages of parenteral medications?
1) Increased risk of infection
2) Injections are more expensive and require preparation and administration by trained personnel
3) Once a drug is injected, there is little time to alter its course if an allergic reaction takes place or too much drug is given
What solutions are often used to treat ear (otic) conditions?
Why can't ear solutions be used to treat eye conditions?
The eye is sterile
Why aren't otic preparations necessarily sterile?
They treat the ear canal and do not penetrate a sterile environment
What drugs must be kept sterile?
What types of agents are available for the eye, ear, and nose in which work on the specific site?
Ointments, solutions, and suspensions
Why are most ear treatments done?
To clear up infections or clean out earwax buildup
Why are most nasal sprays used?
To treat colds and allergies
What are the most common uses of eye treatments?
Infections, inflammation, and glaucoma
What are used to treat lung diseases
in which the dosage forms are limited but very effective if used properly?
What are used for asthma, bronchitis, or emphysema?
Metered dose inhalers (MDIs)
What are available in MDIs for chronic conditions?
What are the two types of Corticosteroid MDIs?
Propellant and dry powder
What do most aerosols come in that are very convenient?
What is the disadvantage of inhalants?
Little if any of the drug is able to get into the lungs
What are long-acting parenteral drugs that can be used in place of daily dosing?
What type of parenteral should never be given intravenously?
What are examples of miscellaneous routes that include vaginal or urethral dosage forms?
Suppositories, ointments, foams, and gels
What type of miscellaneous route is used as a contraceptive?
What is the advantage of miscellaneous routes?
They bypass a systemic effect and affect a specific site
What is the disadvantage of miscellaneous routes?
They are not easily applied and are uncomfortable
What are created based on the results from many clinical trials that delve into the pharmacokinetics of the medication or the function of the drug in experiments?
What encompasses the many different components of the actions of the body on a drug?
What are the six components of pharmacokinetics?
1) Levels of the drug throughout the blood and tissues
2) Absorption of the drug throughout the body
3) Overall distribution
4) Reaction of the drugs with other drugs
5) Patient compliance
6) Life of the drug (bioavailability, half-life, bioequivalence, and elimination)
What is the effects of the drug on the body?
What are the natural body barriers that medication is made to get through?
Skin, stomach, intestines, blood-brain barrier, and other membranous tissues
What is how well the drug passes through these barriers?
What is one factor in determining the overall effectiveness of a drug?
What happens when medication is distributed throughout the body via the bloodstream into tissues, membranes and, ultimately, organs?
What is is not necessarily equal throughout the body?
Distribution of a drug
What do most drugs bind to at some degree?
Where does most metabolism take place in?
What changes the chemical structure of the original drug?
What is the process by which the body breaks down or converts medications to active or inactive substances?
What are the different influences that affect metabolism?
Age, gender, genetics, diet, and other chemicals digested
What primary site does the dose travel to in order to partially metabolize before it is distributed throughout the body?
What lowers a drug's bioavailability?
What drugs are given in larger doses?
What is the last phase of a drug's life in the body?
In what ways can drugs be excreted through the body?
Kidneys, feces, exhalation, sweat glands, and breast milk
What are are the most common methods of excretion?
Urination and bowel movements
What is the rate at which a drug makes it to its destination and becomes available to the site of action for which it is intended?
What is the amount of time it takes the body to break down and excrete one half of a drug?
What is an important factor in the creation of drugs because it tells the manufacturer how long it takes the body to rid itself of the drug?
What term is used to describe that all medications are prepared with additives?
What are the examples of excipients?
Coloring, flavorings, fillers, and preservatives
What is the function of other types of excipients?
Increase the dispersion of a drug once it reaches the intestines, or release the medication over a longer period
What is the comparison between drugs either from different manufacturers or in the same company but from different batches of a drug?
What do generic drug manufacturers strive to achieve to compete with brand name manufacturers?
Who must approve all types of dosage forms?
What are medications are packaged according to?
Manufacturers' specifications to ensure the effectiveness and shelf life of the drug
What does a package insert describe?
The storage and stability of the drug
What do medical terms have their origins in?
Greek and Latin
Before combining form (peri-)
After combining form (-itis)
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