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75 terms

States of Matter, Phase Changes, Energy, and the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter

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Solid
Particles must be in constant motion, except when temperature reaches absolute zero
Solid
Must have strong attractive forces acting between (it's) particles
Solid
Has particles that vibrate around fixed locations in the solid
Solid
Has more order, and is more dense, than most liquids
Solid
Particles are more tightly packed together than in most liquids
Crystalline solid
(It's) atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in an orderly, geometric structure
Unit cell
The smallest arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice that has the same symmetry as the whole crystal
Unit cell
(It's) shape determines shape of the crystal; a representative part of larger whole
Liquid
Fixed volume, but particles take the shape of its container
Liquid
Particles cannot expand to fill its container, but they can flow to adjust to the shape of its container
Liquid
Attractive forces limit particles' range of motion so they remain closely packed in a fixed volume
Liquid
More dense, and less fluid than gases
Liquid
Considered incompressible; already tightly packed, particles don't have room to compress further
Fluid
Ability to flow and diffuse; property of liquids and gases (L & G are classified as ____)
Gas
Constant motion of particles allows (it) to expand until it fills its container
Gas
Very low density; a lot of space exists between (it's) particles
Gas
No significant forces of attraction between (it's) particles
Gas
Particles can flow easily past each other
Gas
Random motion of (___) particles causes (___) to mix until evenly distributed; space where (___) flows is often occupied by another (___)
Diffusion
Term used to describe the movement of one material through another
Effusion
When a gas escapes through a tiny opening
Melting
Endothermic; solid to liquid
Vaporization
Endothermic; liquid to gas
Sublimation
Endothermic; solid to gas (skips liquid phase)
Freezing
Exothermic; liquid to solid
Condensation
Exothermic; gas to liquid
Deposition
Exothermic; gas to solid (skips liquid phase)
Heat
Transfer of energy from an object at a higher temperature to an object at a lower temperature
Liquid phase
In water: when molecules on the surface of the ice (solid) gain enough energy to break the hydrogen bonds apart, (this phase) is entered
Melting point
Temperature at which forces holding the crystal lattice (of a crystalline solid) are broken and becomes liquid
Melting point
Difficult to determine (this point) of amorphous solid
Amorphous solid
Difficult to determine melting point of (this type of solid)
Vaporization
Process by which a liquid changes to gas/vapor
Vapor
Substance which is normally liquid at room temperature is considered a (___) when it's in its gas phase
Evaporation
Vaporization that occurs only at the surface of the liquid
Gas phase
As temperature rises, more and more liquids go into (this phase)
Vapor pressure
Pressure exerted by vapor over a liquid
Boiling point
Temperature at which vapor pressure of a liquid equals the external or atmospheric pressure
Boiling point
Molecules throughout the liquid have enough energy to vaporize at the (___)
Freezing
Molecules lose Kinetic Energy and velocity decreases
Freezing
Heat is removed from liquid; molecules are less likely to flow past each other
Freezing point
Temperature at which liquid converts into a crystalline solid
Condensation
The process by which gas/vapor becomes liquid
Condensation
Opposite of vaporization
Condensation
In water: formation of hydrogen bond releases thermal energy and indicates change from vapor to the liquid phase. (Which phase change?)
Condensation
Always involves transfer of thermal energy
Condensation
Dew collecting on grass (Which phase change?)
Deposition
Process by which a substance changes from a gas or vapor to a solid without first becoming a liquid; energy is released
Deposition
Opposite/reverse of sublimation
Endothermic
All transitions that require the absorption of heat
Endothermic
All transitions that require energy
Exothermic
All transitions that give off heat
Exothermic
All transitions that release energy
Boiling point
Vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure at (this time/point)
Boiling
Heat is added to the bottom, causing bubbles to form at the bottom and rise to the top
Boiling
Occurs from heating the liquid and increasing the energy throughout the entire liquid
Evaporation
Molecules with a higher-than-average kinetic energy escape from the surface of a liquid (what phase change?)
Evaporation
Vaporization at the surface of the liquid
Evaporation
Occurs at the surface of a liquid and is due to vapor pressure
Evaporation
Pressure is a more important factor than temperature in (this phase change)
Pressure, temperature, boiling point
Factors that affect the rate of evaporation
Factors that affect the rate of evaporation
Pressure, temperature, boiling point
Increase of temperature, decrease of atmospheric pressure
Ways water can boil
Ways water can boil
Increase of temperature, decrease of atmospheric pressure
Heat of fusion
Amount of energy it takes to turn solid into a liquid (energy involved for phase change)
Heat of vaporization
Amount of energy it takes to turn gas to liquid, or liquid to gas (energy involved for phase change)
Kinetic-molecular theory
Describes the behavior of matter in terms of particles in motion
Kinetic energy
Energy due to motion
Kinetic energy of particles
As temperature increases, kinetic energy increases
Strong attractive forces acting between particles
(Why do) solids have a definite volume and a definite shape
No significant forces of attraction between gas particles
(Why do) gases have an indefinite volume and an indefinite shape
Evaporation
In water, example: water molecules randomly escaping from surface
Volatile
Easily evaporates/easily enters gas phase
Vapor pressure
Amount of push/pressure the vapor puts against its container
Vapor pressure
Amount of force a gas puts on its container