25 terms

European Middle Ages: 500 - 1200 Chapter 13 Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms Chapter 13, Section 1

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Middle Ages
•500 - 1500
•Also Medieval Period.
•Society was based on:
◦Classical heritage of Rome
◦Beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church
◦Customs of various Germanic tribes
Western Europe Invaded
Disruption of Trade
◦Invasions cause businesses to collapse
•Downfall of Cities
◦Abandoned as centers of administration
•Population Shifts
◦Nobles retreat to rural areas; cities without leadership
•Decline of Learning
◦Invaders couldn't read or write; Greek language almost lost
•Loss of Common Language
◦Latin not widely understood
Emerging Germanic Kingdoms
Small Germanic kingdoms replaced Roman provinces
•Concept of government changed - no longer unified society and common law
•No loyalty to unknown king; loyalty only to Germanic leader
Franks
Held power in Roman province - Gaul (today France / Switzerland)
•Their leader, Clovis, converted to and brought Christianity to region
•Began alliance between Church and Frankish kingdom.
Monasteries
Church built religious communities to adapt to rural areas
◦Monks (men) lived in monasteries
◦Nuns (women) lived in convents
•Gave up private possessions and dedicated their lives to serving God
•Became best-educated communities in Europe
Secular
Gregory I - became pope 590; authority as pope went beyond spiritual to secular (worldly) role:
◦Papacy became involved in politics.
◦Entered into peace treaties.
◦Church income used to raise armies, fix roads AND help the poor.
◦Claimed right to spiritual kingdom from Italy to England and Spain to Germany.
Charles Martel
Mayor of Palace was most powerful position in Frankish kingdom; 719 position was held by Charles Martel.
•Held more power than King Charles; extended Franks' reign north, south and east; also defeated Muslim Raiders at Battle of Tours; became Christian hero.
Carolingian Dynasty
•Son of Charles Martel, Pepin the Short, wanted to be king
•Cooperated with pope to fight Lombards who threatened Rome.
•Pope anointed Pepin as king, beginning Carolingian Dynasty that ruled 751-987.
Charlemagne (Charles the Great)
Also known as Charles the Great; became king in 771.
•Built enormous empire larger than Byzantine Empire, uniting entire Western Europe.
•Spread Christianity; pope crowned him as "Roman Emperor".
•Managed kingdom and encouraged education.
Feudalism in Europe
Chapter 13, Section2
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Feudalism
Similar to feudalism in Japan.
•Set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe.
•Based on rights and obligations.
•System for structuring society based on the right to hold/work land in exchange for service or labor
Feudalism: Terms
The noble who held land or landowner was called the lord.
•The land granted to someone was called a fief.
•The person receiving the land in exchange for services was the vassal.
Feudal Pyramid
Status in the feudal system depended on prestige and power.
•At the peak was the king, and under him the vassals.
•Knights served the landowners or vassals.
•At base of pyramid was peasants and serfs.
Knight
Knights served under wealthy landowners or vassals.
•They were mounted horsemen who pledged to defend their lord's lands in exchange for fiefs (land).
•The rank became associated with the ideals of chivalry, i.e. a code of conduct for the perfect courtly warrior.
Serf
Peasant or poor person who was required to work for the Lord of the Manor.
•In return they were entitled to protection, justice and the right to use certain fields within the manor.
•Often required not only to work on the lord's fields, but also his mines, forests and roads.
•Serfs formed the lowest social class of feudal society.
Manor
•The area over which a lord had domain and could exercise certain rights and privileges in medieval Europe; 15-30 families.
•The self-sufficient village would usually contain a church, workshops, fields, etc. where nearly everything the lord needed would be produced - crops, milk, cheese, cloth, leather, lumber.
•The Manor House was built apart from the village where the peasants lived.
Tithe
Peasant families were required to give up one tenth of their income or what they produced.
•This was paid to the priest for the church.
Chivalry
Knights needed strength and skills to fight wars in the Middle Ages; they had to be disciplined and strong.
•Followed a Code of Conduct that required chivalry - a set of expectations and ideals that included courtesy, generosity, justice and bravery.
•Had to show loyalty to their feudal lord, heavenly lord and chosen lady.
The Power of the Church
Chapter 13, Section 4
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Clergy
Included all church officials from the pope to cardinals, archbishops, bishops, priests and monks/nuns.
•Power was based on status or rank within the church.
•Priests were supervised by Bishops who also settled disputes amongst priests.
Sacrament
•Sacred Christian rites or religious ceremonies.
Sacrament
Canon Law
Church Law
•Authority of the Church was both religious and political.
•EVERYONE - including royalty - subject to Canon Law.
•Harsh punishments for offenders included excommunication.
Holy Roman Empire
•Territories in medieval Germany ruled by Otto the Great.
•Otto also invaded Italy on Pope's behalf; was included in what became known as the Holy Roman Empire.
Lay Investiture
Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV doing penance to reverse his excommunication
by Pope Gregory VII
•Appointment of bishops, abbots, and other church officials by feudal lords and vassals.
•Banned by Church - did not want royals to have that much power.
•Led to clash between Pope Gregory VII and King Henry IV.
The Formation of Western Europe:
800-1500
Chapter14
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