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Psych I - Unit 6
Terms in this set (62)
studies the physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifespan
Stages of Development
Prenatal - Conception to Birth
Infancy (Birth to Age 1)
Toddler (1 to 3)
Childhood (3 to 13)
-a newly fertilized egg which rapidly divides to form a human embryo.
-Exists for 10 days before embryo
passes oxygen and nutrients to the fetus, and screens out toxins.
is the developing human organism from about 10 days after fertilization through the end of the 8th week.
is the developing human organism from 9 weeks until birth.
-harmful agents such as chemicals and viruses
-reach the embryo or fetus during development and cause harm
Examples of teratogens
-prescription and over-the-counter medicine
-viruses associated with STDs (HIV/AIDS)
Fetal Neural Development
-during the Prenatal Development, the body makes nerves cells at a rate of 4000 per second
-babies can't walk, talk, have memories - because the brain hasn't created the neural networks
brain kills unused neurons after birth
Within the first 30 minutes of life, infants:
-turn their head towards sights or human voices
-prefers salty & sweet tastes
-knows smell of its mother
These are all reflexes.
automatic, unlearned responses to stimuli
when touched on the cheek, infant will open the mouth to search for the nipple.
when an object is placed in an infant's mouth he will suck on it
when a baby is touched on the palm by an object, he will grasp it
when an infant is startled he will spread and retract his arms quickly
when a baby's foot is stroked he will spread his toes
Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation
-is biological growth process that enable changes in behavior.
-not influenced by experiences
pruning: ________ or ________
use it or lose it
Genes guide ________ ______________ (Nature): ___________ adjusts it.
-Humans can't remember anything before age 3
Before 3-5 years: No neural connections in our brains that allow us to remember.
Process by which infants learn to make sense of the world around them
Babies prefer different and interesting __________
5-10 weeks old: focus on __________ __________ due to low visual development
15-20 weeks old: looks for patterns that represent _______.
How do babies respond to the perception of falling?
Is depth perception innate or learned?
-Studied cognitive development of children
-Creates theory that children develop in stages
-Developed this interest when he noticed his children had the same "wrong answers" at the same ages.
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
All mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
confusing to us because we have no schema to understand them
-interpreting new information in terms of existing schema
-information about a new object is fitted into an existing schema
Example of assimilation:
A child is given a vitamin pill for the first time and calls it candy. The child does not have a schema for vitamin pill, but does have one for candy.
-Adapting a current understanding (schema) to incorporate new information
-Information about the new object forces a change or modification of the existing schema.
Example of accommodation
The child realizes that the vitamin comes once a day and is not a reward for good behavior. Attempts at chewing it have revealed it doesn't taste like candy. The child then develops a new schema for vitamins
is when things continue to exist even when not perceived (seen, heard, etc).
is the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in form.
is the inability of a child to take another person's point of view.
is people's ideas about their own and others mental states; about feelings, perceptions, thoughts, and behavior these might predict.
Theory of Mind
is a disorder that appears in childhood marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and other's states of mind.
-Birth to 2 years; 1st stage of cognitive development;
-Babies learn to coordinate perceptions with physical movements
-Begin to understand cause and effect relations
-Babies will develop object permanence during this stage
concrete operational stage
-Ages 7 to 11 years; 3rd Stage
-Children begin to show signs of adult thinking
-Can have logical thoughts; begin to use reasoning; NOT abstract thought;
-Can focus on complex thinking, law of -conservation; seeing multiple perspectives
-Age 12 through adulthood; 4th Stage
-Begins at puberty; ends at cognitive maturity
-Children can begin thinking abstractly
-Algebra, Geometry, Problem Solving, Moral Dilemmas
Fear of strangers that infants commonly display; begins about 8 months of age.
an emotional tie with another person shown in young children by seeking closeness with their caregiver; shows distress on separation.
-Harry Harlow's Surrogate mother experiments (1950s)
-Monkeys prefer comfort over nourishment
Harlow's Attachment Experiment
-Elements that contribute to the infant-parent bond that forms during attachment
optimal perid early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development
the process by which certain animals form strong attachments during an early life critical period
What happens when circumstances prevent a child from forming attachments?
Children become withdrawn, frightened, and unable to develop speech
Deprivation of Attachment
If parental support is deprived for an extended period of time, children are at risk for physical, psychological, and social problems including alterations in serotonin levels.
more resilient motivation
high drive for success, desire to succeed
-a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy
-Formed during infancy from experiences with responsible caregivers
basic trust (erik erikson)
is a person's sense of one's identity and self worth.
-is a person's sense of self.
-Adolescent task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
-is the ability to form close, loving relationships;
-The primary developmental task in adolescence and adulthood.
is accomplished by choosing a commitment to a particular role.
is a turning point in a person's life when one examines their values and makes decisions about their life roles.
judge based on behavior
judge based on conventional standards of right and wrong
judge based on your own moral standards
Adulthood - Erik Erikson
Recommended textbook explanations
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
Richard A. Kasschau
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
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