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32 terms

ODY Chapter 1 Part 1

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chemistry
the study of matter, the changes it undergoes and the energy required to change matter
matter
any substance; has mass and volume
mass
The quantity of matter contained in a body; measured in grams
volume
measure of space that matter takes up; mL, cm3
weight
A measure of force with which gravity pulls a body toward the center of the earth;
phase
any part of a system with uniform composition and properties; a state
physical property
a quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance's composition
physical constant
properties of pure substances that can be measured and expressed numerically; fp, mp, d, etc.
density
the amount of mass in a given volume
physical change
one in which the form or appearance of matter changes, but not its composition
chemical properties
characteristic that cannot be observed without altering the substance
chemical change
a change that produces matter with a different composition than the original matter
atom
smallest particle of an element
law of conservation of mass
Mass is neither destroyed nor created during ordinary chemical reactions or physical changes
element
a pure substance made of only one kind of atom
compound
a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
mixture
A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined
homogeneous
uniform; of the same kind
heterogeneous
not uniform throughout
energy
capacity to do work or cause change
calorie
amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius
joule
the SI unit of energy
potential energy
energy stored due to an object's position or arrangement
kinetic energy
the energy an object has due to its motion
law of conservation of energy
the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another
heat
the total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter
temperature
a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter
heat of fusion
the amount of energy required to change 1 g of a solid to a liquid
heat of vaporization
the amount of heat energy required to convert one gram of a substance from a liquid to a gas
calorimeter
a device used to measure the heat absorbed or released in a chemical or physical change
exothermic reaction
a reaction that releases energy in the form of heat
endothermic reaction
A reaction that ABSORBS energy in the form of heat