Unit 2- Developing A Nation
Terms in this set (55)
Provision of the original Constitution that allows Congress to enact legislation that adapts to changing circumstances. "Make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers."
The government must act fairly and in accord with established rules in all that it does
A group selected by the states to elect the president and the vice-president, in which each state's number of electors is equal to the number of its senators and representatives in Congress.
President and vice-president candidates must have the majority of votes to win election.
The constitutional principle in which power is divided between the national and state governments and are higher than the local governments.
similarities between the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution
Both believe that governing power should be divided between different levels of the government
Articles of Confederation
First governing document of US - created a WEAK central government; issues with trade - different currencies in each state, tariffs on goods traded between states
Constitution of the United States
-The document which established the present federal government of the United States and outlined its powers.
-Considered "the Supreme law of the Land"
-Places limits on the powers of the government.
-Influenced by the writings of John Locke, Rousseau and Montesquieu.
Amending the US Constitution
Amendment must be passed by 2/3rds majority in both the Houses and Congress.
Bill of Rights
The need to protect individuals civil liberties.
First ten amendments to the Constitution; major source of civil liberties; promised to Anti-Federalists to secure ratification of Constitution
Weakness of the Articles of Confederation
-Congress did not have the power to levy or collect taxes
-The National Government could not force the states to obey the laws
-Feared the kind of rule experienced under the British Monarchy.
Rebellion led by farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
-Emphasized the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
Declaration of Independence
Influenced by John Locke's Social Contract.
1776 statement, issued by the Second Continental Congress, explaining why the colonies wanted independence from Britain.
complete independence and self-government (of a country);
Governed by the people for the people.
Critical Period of the American Revolution
When the central government failed to solve many economic problems.
The US and NY State constitutions established republican forms of government because each provides for...
Solved at the Constitutional Convention inwhich states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature (Senate) and representation based on population in the other house (House of Representatives)
"Large state" proposal for the new constitution, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population, calling for proportional representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress
New Jersey Plan
"Small States" proposal a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote
A law making body made of two houses (bi means 2). Example: Congress (our legislature) is made of two house - The House of Representatives and The Senate.
Three- Fifths Compromise
an agreement made at the Constitutional Convention stating that enslaved persons would be counted as three-fifths of a person when determining a state's population for representation in the House of Representatives
The Federalist Papers
Written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison to win the support for ratification of the Constitution
Believed the rights of the people were not protected by the Constitution.
Opponents of ratification of the Constitution and of a strong central government, generally.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Process for territories becoming states west of the appalachian mountain range.
Economic policy which was based on the idea that the American colonies existed primarily to provide economic benefit for Great Britain.
Raw materials from the colonies were shipped to England.
After the French and Indian War, the British developed this policy of self-government in the colonies by not enforcing strict laws.
Powers given to the state government alone.
example- NYS requires a sales tax on many goods. Passing Marriage and Divorce laws, Vehicle and Traffic regulations, High school graduation requirements.
President appoints them, they are advisors to president on important issues.
Allows the supreme court to determine the constitutionality of laws. Declares a federal law unconstitutional.
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
A nation's plan for dealing with issues inside its borders
A nation's overall plan for dealing with other nations
"Father of the Constitution," Federalist leader, and fourth President of the United States.
A person appointed or elected to represent others
Slaves count as 3/5th of the population giving slave states more power towards voting and representatives.
Constitutional powers granted solely to the federal government.
Powers given to the national government alone
Interprets the laws
Carries out the laws
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Separation of Powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
Formal approval of laws
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
A group who opposed the ratification of the Constitution in 1787. They opposed a strong central government (tyranny) and supported states' rights.
Introduction to the Constitution
A change to the Constitution
House of Representatives
One of the two parts of Congress, considered the "lower house." Representatives are elected directly by the people, with the number of representatives for each state determined by the state's population--has the power to impeach
One of the two parts of Congress, considered the "upper house." Representatives are elected directly by the people. 2 representatives per state. 100 representatives total.
Head of the Judicial branch at the NATIONAL level
ensure peace, prosperity, and security for the people.
"Give me liberty or give me death"
Speech in the Virginia Convention
Meeting in 1787 of the elected representatives of the thirteen original states to write the Constitution of the United States.