Chapter 1 - Introduction to the immune system
Terms in this set (22)
Adaptive immunity requires expansion and differentiation of ____ to microbes before it can provide effective defense
The total number of naive (unactivated) lymphocytes that can recognize and react against any one antigen ranges from about ____ to ____ cells.
To mount an effective defense against microbes, these few cells have to give rise to a large number of lymphocytes capable of destroying the microbes.
This process is known as ____
1 000 - 10 000
Some ____ T cells belong to a special subset that functions to prevent or limit immune responses, these are called ____
Regulatory T lymphocytes
The differentiation of naive lymphocytes into ____ or ____ cells is initated by antigen recognition
Effector cells or memory cells
Effector CD4+ T Ccells produce proteins called ____ that activates B cells, macrophages and other cell types.
In lymph nodes B cells are concentrated in discrete structures called ____
If the B cells here have recently responded to an antigen, it may contain a central lightly staining region called a ____.
In the spleen, T lymphocytes are concentrated in ____ surrounding small arterioles, and B cells reside in the follicles
periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths
B lymphocytes are attracted to and retained in the follicles because of the action of a class of cytokines called ____
B cells are concentrated in follicles due to chemokine receptor ____
T cells are located in paracortex of lymph nodes or periarteriolar lymphoid sheath of spleen because of chemokine receptor ____
Naive T cells enter lymph nodes through specialized postcapillary venules called ____
high endothelial venules (HEVs)
As a part of the innate immune response, the dendritic cells that present the antigen to naive T cells are activated to express molecules called ____ and to secrete ____, both needed to stimulate proliferation and differentiation of T cells.
Costimulators and secrete cytokines
Antigen = Signal ____
Costimulators and cytokines = Signal ____
What are the two types of adaptive immunity, and what types of microbes do these adaptive immune responses combat?
Humoral immunity - Extracellular microbes
Cell mediated immunity - Intracellular microbes
What are the principal classes of lymphocytes, and how do they differ in function?
B lymphocyte - Mediator of humoral immunity
T lymphocyte - Mediator of cell-mediated immunity
Helper T cell or Cytotoxic T lymphocyte or memory T cell
What are the important differences among naive, effector and memory T and B lymphocytes?
Naive - Express receptors for antigens but do not perform the functions to eliminate antigens
Effector - Differentiated progeny of naive cells that have the ability to produce molecules that function to eliminate antigens
B: Antibody secreting cells
T: CD4+ T helper cells or CD8+ CTL's
Memory - Survive for long periods in the absence of antigens
Where are T and B lymphocytes located in lymph nodes, and how is their anatomic separation maintained?
T cells in paracortex
B cells in follicles
Seperated by chemokines that attract and retain
How do naive and effector T lymphocytes differ in their patterns of migration?
Naive T cells use high endothelial venules to enter the lymph nodes
Effector T cells circulate in the lymph
The unresponsiveness to self cells is known as ____
A healthy adult contains ____ lymphocytes in the body
0.5-1 x 10^12
Some CD4+ T cells belong to a special subset that functions to prevent or limit immune responses, these are known as ____
regulatory T lymphocytes
Follicular dendritic cells DO NOT present antigens to ____, but rather stimulates differentiation of ____ cells in the lymphoid follicles
Tonsils in the pharynx and Peyers patches in the intestine are two anatomically defined ____
mucosal lymphoid tissues
What vessel does the lymph nodes contain but not the spleen?
High Endothelial Venules
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