Chapter Two = Research in Psychcology
TOM AND JERRY
Terms in this set (82)
Define Critical Thinking
Process of assessing claims or assertions and making judgement about them on the basis of well-supported evidence
Prediction that's stated as a testable propositions, usually in form of statements
numbers that represent research findings and provide basis for research conclusions
Five steps of critical thinking
A) What am I being asked to believe or accept? Whats the hypothesis? B) What evidence is available to support assertion? Is it reliable and valid? C) Are there alternative ways of interpreting the evidence? D) What additional evidence would help evaluate the alternatives? E) What conclusions are most reasonable based on evidence and number of alternative explanations?
Statement of specific methods used to measure variables and methods studied in research.
Example of Operational Definition
Whatever logically fits our research hypothesis. If were conducting experiment on effects of caffeine on anxiety, to decide on how to measure anxiety, our operational definition of anxiety might be changes in blood pressure or subjects answers to anxiety questionnaire
Example of Operational Definition 2
If rats have toys, then they can practice certain behaviors similar to those used in running a maze and perform better than rats raised without access to toys
Specific factors/characteristics manipulated and measured in research
Example of variables in Marta's study in which she investigates the impact of teaching style on learning
Teaching style and learning
Cohesive cluster of explanations or integrated set of tentative explanations of behavior and mental processes.
Theories are not _______ because they are constantly ______ as researchers
Definitive...amended...collect and analyze new data
Define naturalistic observations
Method of gathering descriptive information, watching behavior occur in their natural enthronement, without interrupting,
What researcher would observe children playing in a playground if they wanted to see how long children play alone?
One performing a Naturalistic observation
Define Case Studies
Used to collect descriptive data through intensive examination of phenomenon in particular groups, individuals, or situations.
Example of Case Studies
Biological Psychologists intensively studying people who have suffered brain injuries in accidents.
Questionnaires or special interviews administered to large groups.
Social psychologists interested in learning what teenagers feel about marriage can administer
A survey, or questionnare
Surveys are designed to obtain descriptions of peoples
Attitudes, beliefs, opinions, or behavioral intentions.
Define Correlational studies
Research method that examines relationships between variables in order to analyze trends in data, test predictions evaluate theories, and suggest new hypotheses.
What are examples of correlational studies
Surveys and naturalistic observations
Allows researchers to control data-collection process
A trial or test of a hypothesis
Define Experimental Group
Receives the independent variable in an experiment
What is the experimental group in this following scenario, Jenna constructs an experiment in which half the participants consume small amounts of alcohol and the other half consume nonalcoholic beverage. She then gives them a test of reflex speed and compares their performance on it.
The independent variable, group who receives alcohol
Define Control Group
Provides baseline for comparison to experimental group and does not receive independent variable.
Define Independent variable
Manipulated or controlled by the researcher in an experiment
Define Dependent Variable
Measure of consequences. They are observed and measured before and after the administration of the independent varibale
In the alcohol experiment the dependent variable is?
The performance on the reflex speed test.
Define Confounding Variables
Factors affecting the dependent variable in an experiment and confused interpretation of experimental data
Examples of confounding variables include
Random variables, like the time of day for Joe's class, experimenter bias, and placebo effect.
Define Random Variables
Uncontrollable factors that could affect the dependent variable in an experiment, like patients health, personality, and background.
Define Random assignment
An attempt to try to minimize effects of random variables by distributing them randomly across the groups.
Example of Random assignement
Joe flipping a coin to see which group he will participate in
Physical or psychological treatment that contains no active ingredient but produces an effect on the dependent variable because the person receiving it believes it will
Define Experimental Bias:
When a researcher inadvertently encourages subjects to respond in a way that supports their hypothesis.
Example of experimental bias.
Asking "now, do you think that A is better than B?" Rather than, " Which do you think is better A or B?"
Define Double-Blind Design
Neither experimenter nor the participants know who has received the independent variable.
Procedural used to choose subjects for research. Should be chosen based on population being studied
Example of Sampling
If studying gifted students, your participates should be specifically from this group
Define representative Samples
Samples of participants whose characteristics fairly reflect the characteristics of other people in that group
Example of representative sample
A study containing only movie stars is not an accurate indication of the rest of the population
Define random Samples
Groups of subjects selected from the population of interest. If every person in the population has an equal chance of being selected.
If a sample is not random that it is said to be
A social psychologist is interested in studying influence of parents on career choice of first year college students. How can this study be random, and how can it be biased?
If the person selects students from all across the united states, rather than just one state.
When everyone in the population of interest does not have an equal chance of being selected to participate in study.
results are biased by characterizations of the ________ not by the
Define Behavioral genetics
Explore impact of genetics and environmental factors on differences in behavioral tendencies of groups.
Example of Behavioral genetics
The children of a person who experiences depression might be more likely to develop depression than distant relatives or unrelated people.
Define Descriptive statistics
Summarize set of data
Examples of descriptive statistics
Measures of central tendency, measures of variability, and correlation coefficients.
Define inferential statistics
Used to judge the meaning of data.
Inferential statistics all psychologists to
INFER on what the data means
Inferential statistics asses how likely it is that
Group differences or correlations would exist in the population rather than occurring only due to variables associated with the chosen sample.
What is the mode of this set:
21, 10, 15, 17, 11, 17, 18, 19, 17
MOST frequent occurring score in data set.
MIDDLE Score that divides a data set into two, half the scores are higher, half are lower.
Arithmetic average. Add the numerical values of all the scores and divide by that sum
Measure of variability computer by subtracting lowest score from highest
Standard deviation or SD
A measure of variability. Reflect the average distance between each score and mean of data set.
Standard deviation means to
DIFFER, describes overall, how different the scores in a data set are from the mean.
An indication of the relationship between two variables ( X and Y). The degree which X is related to Y.
Example of correlation
In a small English town, seasonal appearance of large number of storks is positively correlated with the number of human births. As x ( Number of storks) increases, y ( number of births) increases.
Correlations do not indicate
Define Correlation Coefficient
Statistic, represented by r, that summarizes the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables.
Example of Correlation coefficient
The student conducts a search to see if presence in class is related to grade in class. Discoverers that the correlation is +.80. This indicates that the more a student attends class, the higher the grade because the correlation is close to the absolute value of 1.00
Define Statistically significant
An indication that the group differences or correlation is larger than would occur by chance.
If the difference between two groups means is statistically significant, a researcher would conclude that the difference... If NOT Statistically signiifcant
Most likely exists in the population of interest...The difference occurred by chance- possibly confounding variables or unrepresented samples
Psychologists investigate phenomena there curious about by formulating
As critical thinkers, scientists look for
Reliable, valid, evidence, or data that either supports or contradicts their hypthesis
What four goals do psychologists strive for when researching a psychological phenomenon
DESCRIBE phenomenon by gathering information about it.
MAKE PREDICTIONS and formulate hypotheses about phenomenon
CONTROL VARIABLES eliminate alternative hypotheses and establish cause and effect
EXPLAIN the phenonmenon
Case studies are used to _________ a phenomenon, often by combining what?
Describe... observations, interviews, tests, and analyses of written records
Correlational studies do not involve _______ ________, but instead measure
Manipulating variables...numerous variables in tandem, and test for co-relations between them.
Why do psychologists use experiments?
To establish cause-effect relationships between variables and to help them choose among alternative hypotheses to explain a given phenomenon.
Three confounding variables are?
Random Variables, Participates Expectations, and Experimenter Bias
To prevent experimental bias, Psychologists use
A double-blind design
When selecting samples, Psychologists must consider
Variables such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, cultural background, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, disability, etc. That will impact mental processes and behavior.
When drawing a truly random sample is impossible, and Biased sampling is unwanted, Psychologists use
Representative samples or samples of convenience
Many psychologists attempt to understand how
Nature ( Genetic makeup) and nurture ( Environmental /experiences) interact to produce mental processes and behavior.
Research behavioral genetic's work employs
Quasi-experimental methods such as family, adoption, and twins.
Measures of central tendency are values that best decribe
Set of Data
Measures of variability indicate the
dispersion or spread in a set of data
Scientific evaluation of research requires the use of critical thinking to carefully assess the
Statistical and methodological aspects of even the most dramatic or desirable results
Scientists have ethical guidelines, therefore they must
Accurately report results, minimize participate discomfort, and prevent long term negative effects/