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Big History final exam

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Paleolithic Era
A time before the age of agriculture where humans used stone tools and were nomadic.
Neolithic Era
A time that began 10,000 years ago with the beginning of agriculture.
Mesopotamia
A region in the Middle East where agriculture was born on the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
Malthusian Cycles
A theory that technology causes population to boom, but eventually famine, overpopulation, or natural disasters will check the population and cause a decline.
Communism
A political and economic idea that involves property being publicly owned, people sharing their resources, and everyone being given what they need according to their abilities and needs.
Capitalism
An economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
Imperialism
A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
Democracy
A system of government where rulers are elected by the will of the people.
Columbian Exchange
The Columbian Exchange was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, diseases, technology, and ideas between the Americas and Afroeurasia in the 15th and 16th centuries,
Things accelerating since the Modern Revolution
Population, access to health care, life expectancy, technology, collective learning, pollution, etc.
Enlightenment
A European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason, individualism, and democracy rather than tradition or monarchies.
Scientific Revolution
The rapid advances in European scientific, mathematical, and political thought, based on a new philosophy of human reason, evidence, and a faith in progress that defined Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Industrial Revolution
A period of major industrialization that took place during the late 1700s and early 1800s. This time period saw the mechanization of agriculture and textile manufacturing and a revolution in power, including steam ships and railroads, that effected social, cultural and economic conditions.
Atlantic Revolutions
These were inspired by the Enlightenment and involved the American, French, and Haitian revolutions.
Biosphere
The regions of the surface, atmosphere, and hydrosphere of the earth (or analogous parts of other planets) occupied by living organisms.
Near future
Events that are predicted to happen within the next few hundred or thousand years.
Deep future
Events that are predicted to happen within the next billion or trillion years. These events are easier to predict than near future events.
Australopithecus
The first up-right human-like ancestor. Lucy is an example of this kind of skeleton.
Homo Habilis
"Handy man", or a human-like ancestor that first used tools.
Homo Erectus
A human-like ancestor that first migrated out of Africa.
Neanderthal
A human-like ancestor (and one that lived at the same time as humans) that wore clothes, migrated extensively, and controlled fire.
Africa
The location where Homo Sapiens first appeared.
Lucy
The earliest known Australopithecus skeleton discovered in Africa.
Collective Learning
The ability to learn from others and build upon that knowledge over time. Homo Sapiens are the only creatures that can collectively learn.
Nomadic
A lifestyle characterized by constantly moving from place to place.
The beginning of farming was caused by...
Overpopulation, knowledge of the environment, and the entire globe warming up.
Characteristics of a civilization
Written language, social hierarchy, job specialization, food surpluses, cities.
Hammurabi's Code
The first set of laws in existence, created in Babylon thousands of years ago.
Silk Roads
An exchange network in Afroeurasia that involved trade of goods, ideas, and diseases between Europe, Asia, and Africa.
Things traded from Afroeurasia to the Americas
Livestock, smallpox, Christianity, coffee
Things traded from the Americas to Afroeurasia
Tomatoes, potatoes, corn
Things that motivated European explorers to discover the new world
A desire to spread Christianity, a need for resources, and curiosity
The four world zones
Afroeurasia, The Pacific, The Americas, Australasia
Anthropocene
An eon of time characterized by human domination over the planet.
Military innovations that led to expansion
Creation of roads and forts
Hub region
A location where many groups of people come together to trade goods and ideas.
Causes of the Industrial Revolution
Scientific Revolution, discovery of new energy sources, the Enlightenment
Complex/symbolic language
A system of communication that involves symbols that represent meaning, and allows collective learning to take place in Homo Sapiens.
Patriarchy
A social order dominated and controlled by men.
Population growth in the Anthropocene was caused by...
Improved medical technology and public health measures.
Big HIstory
An evidence-based account of the entire history of the Universe, starting with the Big Bang.
Republican government
A system of government controlled by representatives that are elected by the people.
Communication technologies that helped connect the world and facilitated collective learning.
Printing press, the invention of paper, and courier systems.
WWI
A global war that took place from 1914-1918.
WWII
A global war that took place from 1939-1945
Job specialization
A movement that occurred after the agricultural revolution, and allowed people to preform different kinds of jobs instead of simply focus on food production.
Monumental architecture
Significant buildings or monuments from ancient civilizations such as Ziggurats or the pyramids.
Irrigation
The ability to re-direct water so that it reaches more crops. This results in crop surpluses.
Natural Rights
Human rights that we are all born with; this idea came from the Enlightenment.
Modern Revolution
A threshold of increasing complexity characterized by massive change in economics, politics, and society (through movements like the Atlantic Revolutions and the Industrial Revolution)
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