Chapter 2 - typical and disordered communication
communication disorders, TCU
Terms in this set (74)
What is communication?
exchange of ideas between sender and receiver; satisfy needs and wants, reveal feelings, share information; powerful drive to be with and communicate with others which leads to a powerful therapy discipline
What is sociolinguistics?
study of how cultural identity, setting, and participants influence communication
What is cultural identity?
language and cultural communities; variances in age, gender, socioeconomic status, geography, and ethnicity will effect communication
What is language?
a socially shared tool, that is rule governed, generative, and dynamic. symbols are arbitrary.
each utterance is freshly created
language changes over time
rules of a language
recognition of right/wrong grammar
What are the three primary components of communication?
form, content, use
Language form involves...
phonology, morphology, and syntax
"the study of sound pertaining to the system of language", descriptive rules, allows us to know how to make something plural to add a descriptor, knowing what sounds are right and wrong
phonetics, phonotactic rules
"the study of sound pertaining to the act of speech", theoretical rules, how to pronounce a sound
the structure of words
morpheme, acronym, backformation, blend, clipping, compounding
smallest grammatical unit
can stand alone in isolation, cannot be separated into smaller units ("dog", "house")
never appears by itself' always attached to other morpheme
-s, -er. -ly
formed out of the first letter of each word of a phrase
lol, scuba, radar
removes part of the word that resembles a morpheme in order to coin a new word
burglar --> burgle
discombobulation --> recombobulation
combines two words to create a new word
smog --> smoke and fog
the reduction of a word into one of its component parts
app --> application
pop --> popular music
pub --> public house
the combining of two or more roots to make a new word
how words are arranged to form an appropriate sounding sentence, can change meaning
the young man yelled at the lady
the lady yelled at the young man
Language Content involves...
the meaning of language
pieces of meaning that define a word, can be dictated by culture
"girl" and "woman" , bad and good are obvious opposites but some slang make "bad" a positive trait
a flowering plant could be referred to as a weed or garden flower
some see the glass half empty and others see the glass half full
the best way to communicate with a fish is to drop them a line
time flies like an arrow, fruit flies like a banana
Language USE involves..
how and why we use language, varies with culture
Example pragmatic rules in American English
do not interrupt, each utterance should be relevant, topics must be established, maintained, and ended.
using language for different purposes
greeting, informing, demanding, promising, requesting
changing language according to the needs of the listener
baby v adult
background info to unfamiliar listener
speaking differently in classroom v playground
following rules for conversations and storytelling
taking turns in convo
introducing topics of conversation
staying on topic
how to use verbal/nonverbal signals
how close to stand
how to use facial expression and eye contact
acoustic representation of language
Features of speech
articulation, fluency, voice
how speech sounds are formed, how we move our tongue, teeth, and lips to produce sounds
smooth, forward flow of communication.
influenced by rhythm and rate (prosody.supresementals)
phrasing, pauses during speech
supra fluent, fluent, or dysfluent
Components of Voice
pitch, habitual pitch, intonation
listeners perception of how high or low a sound is
pitch a speak uses most of the time, most common frequency
pitch movement within an utterance
about 2/3 of communication, parasodic features (how you speak) and nonvocal (no speech)
Nonvocal communication features..
artifacts, kinesics, space and time
appearance (clothing, furniture, cars, music)
explicit: spoken or written with intentional message
implicit: messages we "give off" through actions
space and time
proxemics -- physical distance
tactiles -- touching behavior
chronemics -- effect of time on communication
How to classify a disorder:
etiology, time, reception, expression, severity
environmental, neuromotor, anatomical impairments
Time when disorder occurs
congenital: present at birth
acquired: result of illness, accident, or environmental circumstance
hearing acuity, auditory processing
speech (articulation, fluency, voice) or Language (form, content, use)
borderline, mild, moderate, severe, profound
Disorders of form
phonology, morphology, syntax
not pronouncing word endings
"hi shir i too sma"
incorrect use of past time
"he wented home"
incorrect word order
"Joe me hit"
Disorders of content
limited vocabulary (cant formulate), difficult understanding abstract language (doesn't make sense), notable word finding difficulties to put expressive thoughts together ( cant find the right word)
Disorders of use
difficulty staying on topic, inappropriate responses, interrupting, maturation (kid v adult) of topic, proxemics
Disorders of articulation
caused by paralysis or spasticity, weakness, poor coordination between articulation and breathing, motorspeech
neuromotor programming difficulties, no weakness just cant say right thing, brain
disorders of fluency
developmental dysfluency, hesitations, repititions, prolongation, fillers, stuttering,
when speech behaviors exceed or are different from the norm, accompanied by tension/struggle
noticed around 6
causes unclear, can grow out of it
disorders of voice
voice abuse, disease, trauma, allergies, nueromuscular or endocrine disorders
primary sensory input is not auditory
assitive listening devices
hard of hearing
temporary or permanent
categorized by severity, laterality and type:
mild to severe
bilateral (acquired) or unilateral
conductive, sensorinueral, or mixed
Auditory Processing Disorder
APD, normal hearing but difficulty understanding speech
What percentage of Americans have a communication disorder?
What percentage of Americans have hearing loss?
What percentage of Americans have a speech language or voice disorder?
What is the primary vehicle of communication?