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Biology Semester 1 Final
Terms in this set (58)
What are the 6 steps of the scientific method
What is a hypothesis
testable prediction (if, then, because).
What is the Dependent Variable.
a variable whose value depends on that of another.
What is the Independent Variable.
a variable whose variation does not depend on that of another
What are the Parts of a Microscope
What is Origin Science
interru.pting evidence from past events based on a certain point of view.
What is Operation Science.
A systematic approach to understanding that uses observable, testable, repeatable, experimentation to understand how nature commonly behaves.
What is the Control Group
the group in an experiment or study that does not receive treatment by the researchers and is then used as a benchmark to measure how the other tested subjects do.
What is the experimental group
the group that receives an experimental procedure or a test sample.
Theory vs Law
a scientific theory is an in-depth explanation of the observed phenomenon. A law is a statement about an observed phenomenon or a unifying concept,
What are the Characteristics of living things
esponsiveness to the environment;
growth and change;
ability to reproduce;
have a metabolism and breathe;
being made of cells; and.
passing traits onto offspring.
What are the Levels of organization
cell, tissue, organ, system
What are Macromolecules
a molecule containing a very large number of atoms, such as a protein, nucleic acid, or synthetic polymer.
What are the Taxonomy categories
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
What is a Virus
an infective agent that typically consists of a nucleic acid molecule in a protein coat, is too small to be seen by light microscopy, and is able to multiply only within the living cells of a host.
Lysogenic vs lytic cycle
In the Lytic Cycle, Viruses infect the host cell. They use it to replicate and then destroy the cell. In the Lysogenic Cycle, the virus infects the host cell and inserts its DNA into the DNA of the host cell.
Positive vs negative feedback
A positive feedback loop causes a self-amplifying cycle where a physiological change leads to even greater change in the same direction. A negative feedback loop is a process in which the body senses a change, and activates mechanisms to reverse that change.
What are Enzymes
a substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.
What is a Vaccine
a substance used to stimulate the production of antibodies and provide immunity against one or several diseases, prepared from the causative agent of a disease, its products, or a synthetic substitute, treated to act as an antigen without inducing the disease.
What is Cell Specialization
the process by which generic cells change into specific cells meant to do certain tasks within the body
Autotroph vs Heterotroph
Autotrophs are organisms that can produce their own food from the substances available in their surroundings using light. Heterotrophs cannot synthesize their own food and rely on other organisms — both plants and animals — for nutrition.
3 Parts of Cell Theory
All known living things are made up of one or more cells.
All living cells arise from pre-existing cells by division.
The cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms.
What does the Cell Wall do
- Found in plant and bacterial cells
- located outside of the cell membrane
- rigid protective barrier.
What does the Cell Membrane do
- Boundary of the cell
- controls what comes in and out of the cell
What does the Nucleus do
- control center of the cell
- contains DNA
What do the Ribosomes do
- site of protein synthesis
What does the Golgi Body do
- stores, modifies, and packages proteins
What does the Endoplasmic Reticulum do
- Rough ER: studded with ribosomes and makes specific protein
- Smooth ER: makes lipids and detoxifies cells
What does the Mitochondria do
- powerhouse of the cell
- cellular respiration occurs here.
What does the Chloroplast do
- only in plant cells
- site of food (glucose) production
What do the Lysosomes do
- garbage disposal of cell
- contains digestive enzymes that break down waste.
What does the Cytoskeleton do
- provides shape and structure
- helps move organelles around the cell
What is Irreducible complexity
- cannot be broken down any smaller
- if you lose one part then it no longer has a function.
What is Cell Transport
movement of materials across cell membranes
Active vs Passive Transport
While active transport requires energy and work, passive transport does not.
Diffusion vs Osmosis
Diffusion is a spontaneous movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. ... Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from a region of low solute concentration to a more concentrated solution
What is Hypotonic
low solute, low water
What is Hypertonic
high solute, low water
What is Isotonic
water = solute
Endocytosis vs Exocytosis
Endocytosis is the process of capturing a substance or particle from outside the cell by engulfing it with the cell membrane, and bringing it into the cell. Exocytosis describes the process of vesicles fusing with the plasma membrane and releasing their contents to the outside of the cell.
explain the process of photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis takes in the carbon dioxide produced by all breathing organisms and reintroduces oxygen into the atmosphere.
Describe the reactants and products of each stage of photosynthesis.
The reactant used in this stage is water, and the product is oxygen. The second stage is the Calvin cycle. The reactant used is carbon dioxide, and the product is glucose.
Describe the reactants and products of each stage of cellular respiration.
Oxygen and glucose are both reactants in the process of cellular respiration. The main product of cellular respiration is ATP; waste products include carbon dioxide and water.
Lactic acid fermentation vs alcoholic fermentation.
Lactic acid fermentation happens in our muscle cells when we are exercising feverishly, while alcoholic fermentation is used in yeast cells and is what leads to beer, bread, and wine.
Recessive and Dominant Traits
A dominant trait is opposed to a recessive trait which is expressed only when two copies of the gene are present.
What are Hybrids
the offspring of two plants or animals of different species or varieties, such as a mule (a hybrid of a donkey and a horse).
What is a Homozygous
Homozygous is a word that refers to a particular gene that has identical alleles. Homo = same
What is a Heterozygous
Heterozygous means having one each of two different alleles. Hetero = different
What are Genes and Alleles
An allele is a variant form of a gene. Some genes have a variety of different forms, which are located at the same position, or genetic locus, on a chromosome. Humans are called diploid organisms because they have two alleles at each genetic locus, with one allele inherited from each parent.
What are Gametes
Sperm and Egg
What is Segregation
the separation of pairs of alleles at meiosis and their independent transmission via separate gametes.
What is Independent Assortment
Independent Assortment describes how different genes independently separate from one another when reproductive cells develop.
What is a Genotype
the genetic constitution of an individual organism. ex: Tt, TT, tt
What is a Phenotype
the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment. ex: tall, short, green, blue
What is Incomplete Dominance
Incomplete dominance refers to a genetic situation in which one allele does not completely dominate another allele, and therefore results in a new phenotype.
What does it mean is there are Multiple Alleles
any one of a series of three or more alternative or allelic forms of a gene, only two of which can exist in any normal individual.
What are Polygenic Traits
Polygenic traits are controlled by two or more than two genes
What are Sex Linked Traits
A trait associated with a gene that is carried only by the male or female parent.
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