Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
APHG Review Ch. 1 & 2
Terms in this set (161)
What has geography been called?
"mother of all sciences"
considers the arrangement of the phenomena being studied across the surface of the Earth
What does geography mean?
What are two major branches that geography is split into?
physical geography and human geography
is the study of spatial characteristics of various elements of the physical environment
is the study of spatial characteristics of humans and human activities
What is the concern for human geographers?
The human population and the spatial characteristics associated with people
What are the 5 different subfields geographers study?
What is the most important tool for geographers?
What is cartography?
the art and science of map making
Who were the first people in western Eurasia to formalize the study of geography?
Greeks and Romans
What is the Iliad and Odyssey?
two epic poems written by Homer that are geographic in nature and point to Greek interest in descriptions of the world
was a keen observer of the Earth and its features and how they influence behavior
calculated the circumference of Earth from Alexandria in Egypt during the 3rd century B.C.E., and h was nearly correct; He coined the term geography
a Greek who lived about 500 years after Eratosthenes, wrote a summary of Greek knowledge about geography, including the location and size continents, that dominated European thought for 1,000 years
wrote descriptions of various areas of the Roman Empire and proposed theories about how geography influenced history
5 Greek and Romans that studied geography:
Who was an important geographer of the early modern period in Europe?
created a world map that was very useful for sailors and is still widely used today
traveled extensively through South America; his study of continent's wealth in plants and his detailed, accurate maps combined to spur European interest in the Americas; saw the world as a connected whole, in which all types knowledge contributed to each other (inspired geographers ever since)
Alexander von Humboldt
What did geographers establish in the early 19th century?
What did the establishment of geographical societies mark the birth of?
formal academic discipline of geography
expanded the focus of geography beyond physical traits of the Earth to include human activity
is the precise spot where something is according to some system
is the distance north or south of the equator
an imaginary line that circles the globe exactly halfway between the North an south poles
is the distance east east or west of the prime meridian
an imaginary line that runs from pole to pole through Greenwich, England
roughly follows this line but makes deviations to accommodate international boundaries
International Date Lines
is a description of where something is in relation to other things
how well two locations are tied together by roads or other links
how quickly and easily people in one location can interact with people in another location
refers to the specific human and physical characteristics of a location
What are two ways to refer to place?
site and situation
can be described as the characteristics at the immediate location (ex soil type, climate, and ect.)
refers to the location of a place relative to its surrounding or other places
the characteristics of a place in different ways based on their personal belief
sense of place
What can toponyms show insight on?
culture of the location
is an important part of the geographic perspective and spatial approach; the measure of how far or how near things are to one another
indicates the degree of nearness
is the shrinking "time distance" between locations because of improved methods of transportation and communication
What is one result of time-space compression?
global forces are influencing culture everywhere and reducing local diversity more than ever before
the increasing connection between places; refers to the contct, movement, and flow of things between locations
indicates that when things are farther apart, they tend to be less well connected
friction of distance
the inverse relationship between distance and connection
What has reduced the friction of distance between places?
is the number of something in a specifically defined area; number of people per square mile
How can density be calculated?
Counting the people and dividing by the area
The way phenomenon is spread out over an area
What are four common patterns of phenomena?
Are arranged in a straight line such as distribution of towns along a railroad line
Are equally spaced from a central point forming a circle such as distribution of the homes of people who shop at a particular store
Are in regular arrangement such as the squares formed by roads in the Midwest
Appear to have no order to their position such as the distribution of pet owners in a city
Matching patterns of distribution; indicate that two or more phenomenal may be related or associated with one another
The connection and exchange between humans in the natural world
Human environmental interaction
What do geographers who focus on how humans influence the physical world specialize in?
Sustainability pollution and environmental issues
The study of how humans adapt to their environment
The believe that landforms and climate are the most powerful force in shaping human behavior and societal development
A view that it acknowledges limits on the role of the natural environment and focuses more on the role that human culture plays
The task of defining and describing landscapes
Is used to refer to the active physically visiting a location place or region in according first-hand information there
Information that can be tied to specific locations
Remotely sensed information from satellite to orbit the earth about the atmosphere
What has replaced sketching as a tool for capturing information about landscapes?
Ground level photography
The physical artifacts that humans have created and that form part of the landscape
Anything built by humans
What are the four levels of analysis
Which level of analysis Establishes the basic information clearly
What level of the four levels of analysis identifies in the describes patterns in phenomenal
What level of the four level analysis explains how individuals phenomenal might form pattern
What level of the four level analyst explains why a pattern is important and predict what it might lead to
Which statement best describes the absolute location of Paris France?
49° north 2° east
Which statement describes the relative location of Barcelona Spain
386 miles east of the druid and 644 miles from south of Paris
The word Madrid is a top in them because it designates
The name of a specific location
Which best describes the effect on time space comprehension but the technology shown above
It increased it by speeding up communications
Which best explains why the above image is considered part of the built environment
It is part of the landscape made by humans
Which technology had the greatest effect on the application of the distance decay function
Jet because it strengthens the connections between distant areas
The frequency of occurrence of something within a pacifically to find area is the
One way that possibilism Differs from environmental determination is that it emphasizes
Where is the equator designated at?
where are the poles designated at?
90 north and 90 south
where is the prime meridian designated at?
What has replaced sketching as a tool for capturing information about landscapes?
general arrangement of things being studied
the repeated sequence of events
What is the most important tool of geographers?
is the ratio between the size of things in the real world and the size of those same things
What is the essential to highlighting and analyzing patterns?
What are the three type of scale on a map?
cartographic scale, geographic scale, and the scale of the data represented on the map
refers to the way the map communicates the ratio of its size to the size of what it represents
what are the four types of a cartographic scale?
words, ratio, and a line
sometimes called relative scale; refers to the amount of territory that the map represents
scale of information contained on a map compared to the area being shown (ie - population of Australia on a population map compared to a map of Australia)
scale of data
what are the two broad categories of maps?
reference maps and thematic maps
are aptly named because they are designed for people to refer to for general information about places
5 types of reference maps:
show and label human-created boundaries and designations, such as countries, states, cities and capitals
show and label natural features such as mountains rivers and desserts
show and label highways, streets, and alleys
show and label property lines and details of land ownership
are illustrations used in books and advertisements to show specific locations mentioned in the text
show spatial aspects of information or of a phenomenon
4 common thematic maps:
dot distribution maps
graduated symbol maps
use various colors, shades of one color, or patterns to show the location and distribution of spatial data
are used to show the specific location and distribution of something across the territory of the map
dot distribution map
use symbols of different sizes to indicate different amounts of something
graduated symbol maps
also called isometric maps; use lines that connect points of equal value to depict variations in the data across space
What is the most common isoline map?
are popular among hikers; points of equal elevation are connected on these maps creating contours that depict surface features
the sizes of counties are shown according to some specific statistic
Why are some maps distorted?
the earth is a sphere and maps are flat
the process of showing a curved surface on a flat surface
What are some of the strengths of navigation on map projections? (2)
*directions are shown accurately
*lines of latitude and longitude meet at right angles
What are some of the distortions of navigation on map projections? (2)
*distance of lines of longitude appear constant
*land masses near the poles appear large
What are some of the strengths of spatial distribution related to area on map projections? (1)
*size of land masses are accurate
What are some of the distortions of spatial distributions related to area? (1)
shapes are inaccurate, especially near the poles
What are some of the strengths of general use in Midlatitude countries on map projections? (3)
*lines of longitude converge
*lines of latitude are curved
*size and shape are both relatively close to reality
What are some of the distortions of General use in midlatitude countries map projections? (2)
*Direction is not constant
*on a world map longitude lines converge at only one pole
What are some strength general use map projections? (2)
*no major distortion
*oval shape appears more like a globe than does a rectangle
What are some distortions of general use in map projections? (1)
* Area shape size and direction are all slightly distorted
What is the purpose for them Mercator Map projection?
What is the purpose for the peters map projection?
Spatial distribution related to area
What is the purpose of the conic map projection?
General use in mid latitude countries
What is the purpose of the Robinson map projection?
Representations of reality or theories about reality to help them see general spatial patterns focus on the influence of pacific factors and understand variations from place to place
What are two basic types of geographic models?
Spatial model and non-spatial models
Not like stylized maps and they illustrate theories about spatial distribution's; develop for agricultural land use
Illustrate theories and concepts using words graphs or tables; Often to depict changes over time rather than a crawlspace
What helps geographers understand how the world works?
Is the process geographers use to divide and categorize space into smaller areal units
Three different types of regions
Formal functional or perceptual
Sometimes called a uniform regions or homogeneous region and are united by one or more traits
The three traits that unit formal regions
Physical cultural economic
Also known as nodal regions; Are organized around a focal point and are defined by an activity that occurs across the region
Also known as vernacular regions; Defined by the informal sense of place that people ascribe to them
Maps that people create in their minds based on their own experience and knowledge
What do you geographers divide the world into?
Regions and subregions
Share some characteristics with the rest of the larger region but is distinctive in some ways
What does Geospatial data include?
All information that can be tied to a specific place
Where is geospatial data normally obtained?
In the field
Observed and recorded on location
What are some ways that fieldwork can be gathered?
Senses of the population interviews land survey photographs and sketches
GPS receivers on the earth surface use the location of multiple satellites to determine and record a receivers exact location
GPS: global positioning system
Uses of GPS: (3)
Precisely locating borders
Navigating ships aircraft in cars
Mapping lines or points
Do use of cameras or are there sensors mounted on aircraft or satellite to collect digital images of the earths surface
Uses of remote-sensing: (4)
Determining the land cover and use
Monitoring environmental changes
Assessing spread of spatial phenomena
Monitoring the weather
Computer system that can store analyze and display information from multiple digital mounds of geospatial data sets
GIS: geographic information systems
Uses of GIS:
Analysis of crime data
Effects of pollution
Transportation/travel time analysis
Is information that can be measured and recorded using Numbers
Is not usually percentage by numbers
What is the map projection shown here especially useful for navigation on the surface of the earth
Direction is constant across the map
Like the map above all maps have some kind of distortion why
The earths surface is curve and a map is flat
How are a Cartogram and a graduated symbol map similar?
Both portray numerical data for Comparison between places
Which term most Closely describes a model in geography
Which phrase refers to the connection of Geo spatial data through the use of satellite imagery
Using remote sensing
Which is the best example of qualitative data used by geographers
Personal descriptions of processes and events
Why are geographers interested in the information in dolly?
Provides information about spatial distribution of people's reactions to events
Which issue with a geographer research using dolly
How people in different areas reacted to result of a presidential election
Sets with similar terms
AP Human Geography: Patterns and Processes
APHUG, Unit 1
AP Human Geography Unit 1
Kaplan AP Human Geography Chapter 3
Other sets by this creator
history chapter 17
Recommended textbook solutions
Earth Science: The Physical Setting
Jeffrey C. Callister
Life on an Ocean Planet
Prentice Hall Brief Review: The Living Environment 2019
John Bartsch, Mary P Colvard
Interactive Science: Water and the Atmosphere
Savvas Learning Co