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58 terms

Biology Chapter 1

STUDY
PLAY
Even though biology is a broad field of study, _______ serves as a central theme that unifies all of biology.
Evolution. Evolutionary theorist Theodosius Dobzhansky wrote that without the light of evolution, biology "becomes a pile of sundry facts some of them interesting or curious but making no meaningful picture as a whole."
The life-supporting environments of Earth constitute the _____.
Biosphere. The biosphere consists of all of the environments on Earth that support life.
What is an ecosystem?
Both the living and nonliving components of the particular area.
Most plants are _____.
Producers. Producers are organisms that can make their own food, as plants do through photosynthesis.
What is the fundamental unit of life?
The cell. The simplest unit of life is the cell, and all organisms are composed of cells.
What is an example of a prokaryotic cell?
Bacteria are prokaryotes.
Gene technology has made it possible for bacteria to express human genes. Why is this possible?
All organisms share a common genetic code. Thus, bacteria are able to read and express human genes
Based on diversity, life is divided into Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. These groupings are called _____.
Domains
In what way(s) is the science of biology influencing and changing our culture?
by helping us understand the relevance of evolution to human health, by revealing how mutations in genes can lead to disease, by providing new tools for forensic investigations
What is biology?
the scientific study of life
What is not a property of life?
Populations of organisms rarely change over time.
What are the two main processes that ecosystems depend upon?
nutrient recycling and energy flow
Which of the following is not recycled but is lost from ecosystems?
Energy
What is an example of a producer?
An oak tree
Humans are ______.
Consumers
Which of the following structures can perform all the activities required for life?
Cells
Relative to prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells are usually ______.
Larger and more complex
Humans are composed of ______ cells.
eukaryotic
What name is given to the functional compartments of a cell?
organelles
The DNA of a eukaryotic cell is found within the ______.
nucleus
What are eukaryotic genes composed of?
DNA
What is a gene?
a unit of inheritance
The human genome consists of about ______ chemical letters.
3 billion
More than half of all known species are ______.
insects
Taxonomy is the ______.
naming and classifying of species
How does taxonomy assist biologists?
by categorizing diverse items into smaller and smaller numbers of groups
Which domain(s) consist(s) of prokaryotic cells?
Bacteria and Archaea
Which kingdom of Eukarya consists primarily of unicellular organisms?
Protista
A newly discovered multicellular organism obtains food by digesting dead organisms. Such an organism is most likely a member of the kingdom ______.
Fungi
Members of the kingdom Plantae differ from members of the other kingdoms of Eukarya in that most members of the kingdom Plantae ______.
Produce their own food
In his book The Origin of Species, Darwin argued that species living today descended from a succession of ancestral species. What mechanism did Darwin propose to explain how evolution occurs?
Natural Selection
What mechanism explains why polar bears are white and bears found farther south have a darker color?
Natural Selection
What is the basis of natural selection?
unequal reproductive success
Which of these scenarios is the result of natural selection?
the proliferation of pesticide-resistant insects
The branch of biology that explains both the diversity and the unity of life is ______.
Evolution
Which of these is most closely associated with Darwin?
Natural Selection
What is required for natural selection to occur?
individual variation, inheritance, unequal reproductive success
Unequal reproductive success ______.
Can lead to natural selection
What does adaptation mean in a biological context?
the accumulation of favorable variations in a population over time
What accounts for the different breeds of domesticated dogs?
artificial selection
Over a span of two decades, scientists measured changes in the beak size of a population of Galápagos ground finches. This ______.
provided evidence of natural selection in action
How does discovery science compare to hypothesis-driven science?
Discovery science depends on verifiable observations and measurements but does not require formal hypothesis testing.
Which of these is a key feature of the scientific method?
Scientific hypotheses must be testable.
What name is given to a proposed explanation for a set of observations?
A hypothesis is a tentative answer to a question.
Trans fat can best be described as a __________.
non-natural form of fat produced through manufacturing processes
What best describes a theory?
a comprehensive explanation of natural phenomena supported by abundant evidence
In science, theories _____.
can tie together a large number of observations that previously seemed unrelated
What best describes the culture of science and how scientists work?
Scientists commonly repeat other scientists' experiments to verify their work.
Introduction of new technologies often has unintended consequences. For example, _______.
new technologies have led to devastating environmental consequences
The emergence of antibiotic resistance in hospital settings indicates that _________.
heritable variations already existed among individuals within the population
Science is ______.
the inquiry-based effort to describe and explain nature
What is the difference between discovery science and hypothesis-driven science?
Discovery science is mostly about describing nature, whereas hypothesis-driven science tries to explain nature.
Discovery science is primarily based on ______.
Observation
A hypothesis is a(n) ______.
tentative answer to a question
What is the proper components of the scientific method?
observation, question, hypothesis, prediction, experiment, results, conclusion
In a scientific experiment, the control group ______.
serves as a basis of comparison with the experimental group
How do hypotheses differ from theories?
Theories are more comprehensive than hypotheses.
Antibiotic resistance evolves in bacteria because ______.
the presence of antibiotics favors bacteria that already have genes for resistance