Praxis 5039 Grammar Terms
Terms in this set (45)
a form that is derived from a verb but that functions as a noun. ending -ing can be used as the SUBJECT or OBJECT or giving more information about the Subject (subject compliment) or more information about the object (object compliment) (noun) in a sentence. A gerund can be the object of the preposition.
Link related independent clauses.
1. Unless being used in lists, they should only be used to connect related clauses.
2. Do not use before coordinating conjunctions. It can replace a coordinating conjunction. (FANBOYS)
the property of a noun or pronoun that indicates how it relates to other parts of a sentence. The three cases in English are nominative, possessive, and objective.
a count noun referring to a group—e.g., staff, band, group.
a word, phrase, or clause that describes a noun or pronoun.
a word, phrase, or clause that modifies the meaning of a verb, adjective, or other adverb.
the noun or noun phrase to which a pronoun refers.
a noun or noun phrase that identifies or modifies the noun or pronoun that comes immediately before it—e.g., Joey, my boyfriend, wanted pizza.
a type of adjective used to indicate specificity. In English, the only articles are the, a, and an.
an irregular verb that provides information about another verb. The main ones are to have and to be.
indicating that something has a quality to a greater or lesser degree than something else. For example, faster, prettier, and more equitable are comparative adjectives. Comparative adverbs usually take more.
a word or phrase that completes the meaning of a verb. The main types are objects, predicate nouns, and predicate adjectives.
a word or phrase that links words, phrases, clauses, or sentences.
an adverb that functions as a conjunction—for example, however, therefore, hence.
an abbreviation of a word or phrase formed by omitting letters, usually replacing the omitted letters with an apostrophe—e.g., can't, we'll, he'd.
significantly more common than alternative forms.
a noun that can be singular or plural.
Dangler (or dangling modifier)
a modifier, especially at the beginning of a sentence, positioned to modify the wrong word or no word at all—e.g., Leaving home, the weather was nice.
the noun or pronoun referring to a person or thing acted upon directly by the action of a verb—e.g., I'm writing a book.
the mood of a verb when its clause makes a command or a request—e.g., Read me that book.
the mood of a verb when its clause states a fact or opinion or asks a question
a noun or pronoun denoting a person or thing acted upon indirectly by the action of a verb—e.g., I gave him the book. (him)
the uninflected form of a verb, usually preceded by to. Infinitives are usually nouns—e.g., To write well is not easy.
an adverb that amplifies the meaning of the adjective it modifies—e.g., very, quite, rather.
a short word or phrase that suddenly and briefly expresses an emotion or reaction—e.g., oh, wow, ahem.
a word or phrase, especially an adjective or adverb, that modifies the meaning of another word or phrase.
the quality of a verb that expresses the speaker's attitude toward the likelihood, existence, or desirability of the verb's action. In English, the three moods are indicative, imperative, and subjunctive.
a noun's or pronoun's case when it is the subject or complement of a verb. SUBJECT: These nouns are either the SUBJECT of a sentence or they are used as a predicate noun, which follows a "be" verb and remains the main subject of the sentence.
a noun or pronoun that receives the action of a verb.
a noun's or pronoun's case when it is the object of a verb, preposition, or infinitive.
(Second type of verbal phrase) an -ed or -ing verb form used as an adjective or to form the progressive aspect or perfect tense. Usually modifies subjects or objects, so it usually acts as an adjective. "Panting furiously, the dog chased the rabbit." (Panting furiously is the Participle phrase)
the participial form of a verb usually identical to the past-tense form (ending in -ed)—though there are many irregular past participles. It is used as an adjective or to form a verb tense
a participle taking the form of having plus the past participle—e.g., having had, having gone.
a group of two or more words that function together yet have no subject or predicate.
a noun's or pronoun's case when its relationship to another element in the sentence is one of ownership, association, or belonging.
the part of a clause that tells what the subject does, what is done to the subject, or what is being said about the subject.
a word that links a noun or pronoun to another type of word. (on, over, across, at, far, in, from, by, with, to, off)
a participle ending in -ing.
a word that stands in for a noun.
the person, place, or thing about which something is said in a clause.
a conventional or customary manner of presenting language. Different publishers, publications, editors, and authors may have different preferences.
the mood of a verb when its clause, which is necessarily dependent, addresses conditions that are contrary to fact—e.g., If I were good at grammar, I'd be a better writer.
indicating that something, when compared with two or more other things, has a quality to the greatest or least degree. For example, fastest, prettiest, and most equitable are superlative adjectives.
the quality of a verb that expresses when the action occurred, occurs, or will occur.
Gerunds and Participles
The two types of verbal phrases