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Occupational Therapy Practice Framework

STUDY
PLAY
Activities of daily living
Activities oriented toward taking care of one's own body. Fundamental to living a social world; they enable basic survival and well-being
Activities
A class of human actions that are goal directed
Activity analysis
Address is the typical demands of activity, the range of skills involved in its performance, the various cultural meetings that might be ascribed to it
Activity demands
The aspect of activity, which include the objects and her physical properties, space, social demands, sequencing or timing, required actions or skills, and required underlining body functions and body structures needed to carry out the activity
Adaptation
Response approach the client makes encountering an occupational challenge.
Advocacy
The pursuit of influencing outcomes - including public policy and resource allocation decisions within political, economic, and social systems and institutions - that directly affect people's lives
Analysis of occupational performance
Part of the evaluation process. Collecting information the assessment tools designed to observe, measure, and inquire about selected factors that support her hinder occupational performance
Areas of occupation
Various kinds of activities in which people engage, including the following categories: ADLs, IADLs, rest and sleep, education, work, play, leisure, and social participation
Assessment
Specific tools or instruments that are used during the evaluation process
Belief
Any cognitive content held as true by the client
Body functions
The physiological functions of the body systems including psychological functions
Body structures
Anatomical parts of the body such as organs, limbs, and their components that support body function
Client
The entity that receives occupational therapy services. May include: individuals, organizations, populations
Client centered approach
An orientation that honors the desires and priorities of clients and designing and implementing interventions
Client factors
Those factors residing within the client that may affect performance in areas of occupation. Include values, beliefs, and spirituality; body functions and body structures
Clinical reasoning
Complex multifaceted cognitive process used by practitioners to plan, direct, perform, and reflect on intervention
Communication and social skills
Actions or behaviors a person uses to communicate and interact with others in an interactive environment
Cognitive skills
Actions or behaviors a client uses to plan and manage the performance of activity
Context
Refers to a variety of interrelated conditions within and surrounding the client that influence performance. Include cultural, personal, temporal, and virtual
Co-occupations
Activities that implicitly involve at least two people
Cultural context
Customs, beliefs, activity patterns, behavior standards, and expectations accepted by the society of which the client is a member.
Domain
The sphere of activity, concerns, or function
Education
Includes learning activities needed when participating in an environment
Emotional regulation skills
Actions or behaviors that client uses to identify, manage, and express feelings while engaging in activities or interacting with others
Engagement
The act of sharing activities
Environment
The external physical and social environment that surrounds the client in which the client's daily life occupations occur
Evaluation
The process of obtaining and interpreting data necessary for intervention. Includes planning for and documenting the evaluation process and results
Goals
The results of achievement toward which effort is directed; aim; end
Habits
Automatic behavior that is integrated into more complex patterns that enable people to function on a day-to-day basis. Can be useful, dominating, or impoverished and either support or interfere with performance in areas of occupation
Health
a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, as well as a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources
Health Promotion 1
the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. To reach a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, an individual or group must be able to identify and realize aspirations, to satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment
Health Promotion 2
Creating the conditions necessary for health at individual, social, structural,and environmental levels through an understanding of the determinants of health: please, shelter, education, food, income, stable ecosystem, sustainable resources, social justice, and equity
Hope
The real or perceived belief that one can move toward a goal for selected pathways
Identity
A composite definition of the self and includes an interpersonal aspect... an aspect of possibility or potential, and a values aspect. Can be viewed as a superordinate view of ourselves that includes self-esteem and self concept but also importantly reflects and is influenced by the larger social world in which we find ourselves
Independence
A self-directed state of being characterized by an individual's ability to participate in necessary and preferred occupations and satisfying manner regardless of the amount or kind of external assistance desired or required
Instrumental activities of daily living
Activities to support daily life within the home is often require more complex interactions and self-care used in ADLs
Interdependence
The reliance that people have on each other as natural consequence of group living. Endangers a spirit of social inclusion, mutual aid, and moral commitment and responsibility to recognize and support difference
Interests
What one finds enjoyable and satisfying to do
Intervention
The process and skilled actions taken by occupational therapy practitioners in collaboration with the client to facilitate engagement and occupation related to health and participation. Process includes the plan, implementation, and review
Intervention approaches
Specific strategies selected to direct the process of interventions that are based on the clients desired outcome, evaluation date, and evidence
Leisure
A nonobligatory activity that is intrinsically motivated and engaged in during discretionary time, time not committed to obligatory occupations such as work, self-care, or sleep
Motor and praxis skills
Actions or behaviors that client uses to move and physically interact with tasks, objects, contacts, and environments. Includes planning, sequencing, and executing novel movements
Occupation 1
Goal directed pursuits that typically extend over time have meaning to the performance, and involve multiple tasks
Occupation 2
Daily activities that reflect cultural values, provide structure to living, and meeting to individuals; activities meet human needs for self-care, enjoyment, and participation in society
Occupation 3
Activities people engage and throughout their daily lives to fill the time and give life meaning. Involve mental abilities and skills and may not have an observable physical dimension
Occupation 4
Activities of everyday life, named, organized, and given value and meaning that individuals in the culture. Everything people do to occupy themselves, including looking after themselves, enjoying life, and contributing to social and economic fabric of their communities
Occupation 5
A dynamic relationship among occupational form, the person with a unique developmental structure, subjective meanings and purpose, and the resulting occupational performance
Occupation 6
Chunks of daily activities that can be named in the lexicon of the culture
Occupation based intervention
Type of occupational therapy intervention, the client centered intervention in which the OT practitioner and the client collaboratively select and design activities that have specific relevance or meaning to the client and support the clients interests, need, health, and participation in daily life
Occupational justice 1
Justice related to opportunities and resources required for occupational participation sufficient to satisfy personal needs and full citizenship
Occupational justice 2
To experience meaning and enrichment and ones occupations; to participate in a range of occupations for health and social inclusion; to make choices and shared decision-making power in daily life; and to receive equal privileges for diverse participation in occupations
Occupational performance
The act of doing and accomplishing a selected activity or occupation that results from the dynamic transaction among the client, the context, and the activity. Improving or enabling skills and patterns of occupational performance leads to engagement in occupations or activities. Improvement fo enhancement
Occupational profile
A summary of clients occupational history, patterns of daily living, interests, values, and needs
Occupational science
An interdisciplinary academic discipline in the social and behavioral sciences dedicated to the study of the form, function, and the meaning of human occupations
Occupational therapy
The therapeutic use of everyday life activities with individuals or groups for the purpose of participation and roles and situations and home, school, workplace, community and other settings. Provided for the purpose of promoting health and wellness into those who have or are at risk for developing an illness, injury, disease, disorder, condition, impairment, disability, activity limitation, or participation restriction. Addresses the physical, cognitive, psychosocial, sensory, and other aspects performance in a variety of context to support engagement in everyday life activities that affect health, well-being, and quality-of-life.
Organizations
Entities with a common purpose or enterprise such as a business, industries, or agencies
Outcomes
What OT actually achieves for the consumers of its services. Change desired by the client that can focus on any area of the clients occupational performance. Include occupational performance, adaptation, health and wellness, participation, prevention, quality-of-life, role competence, self advocacy, occupational justice
Participation
Involvement in a life situation
Performance patterns
Patterns of behavior related to daily life activities that are habitual or routine. Include habits, routines, rituals, and roles
Performance skills
The abilities clients demonstrate the actions they perform
Persons
Individuals, including families, caregivers, teachers, employees, relevant others
Personal
Features of the individual that are not part of a health condition or health status. Includes age, gender, socioeconomic, and educational status, organizational levels, and population levels
Physical environment
The natural and built nonhuman environment and objects in them
Play
Any spontaneous or organized activity that provides enjoyment, entertainment, amusement, or diversion
Populations
Large groups as a whole, such as refugees, homeless veterans, people who need wheel chairs
Praxis
Skilled purposeful movements.
Ability to carry out sequential motor acts as part of an overall plan rather than individual acts.
Ability to carry out learned motor activity, including following through on a verbal command, visual spatial construction, ocular and oral motor skills, imitation of a person or object, and sequencing actions
Organization of temporal sequences of actions within the spatial context; which form meaningful occupations
Preparatory methods
Methods and techniques that prepare the client for occupational performance. Use in preparation for or concurrently with purposeful and occupation based activities
Prevention
Health promotion is equally and essentially concerned with creating the conditions necessary for health of individual, structural, social, and environmental levels through an understanding of the determinants of health.
Promoting a healthy lifestyle at the individual, group, organizational, community, governmental/policy level
Process
Description of the way in which OT practitioners operationalize their expertise to provide services to clients. Process includes evaluation, intervention, outcome monitoring; occurs with and the purview of the domain; involves collaboration among the OT, OTA, and the client
Purposeful activity
A goal directed behavior or activity with a therapeutically designed context that leads to an occupation or occupations. Specifically selected activities that allow the client to develop skills that enhance occupational engagement
Quality of life
Client dynamic appraisal of life satisfactions, self-concept, health and functioning, and socioeconomic factors
Reevaluation
A reassessment of the clients performance and goals to determine the type and amount of change
Ritual
Symbolic actions the spiritual, cultural, or social meaning, contributing to the clients identity and reinforcing the clients values and beliefs. Highly symbolic, with a strong affective component and representation of a collection of events
Roles
Sets of behaviors expected by society, shaped by culture, and maybe further conceptualized and defined by the client
Routines
Patterns of behavior that are observable, regular, repetitive, and that provide structure for daily life. Can be satisfying, promoting, or damaging. Require momentary time commitment and are embedded in a cultural ecological context
Rest
Quiet and effortless functions that interact physical and mental activity, resulting in a relaxed state
Self advocacy
Understanding your strengths and needs, identifying with your personal goals, knowing your legal rights and responsibilities, and communicating these to others
Sensory perceptual skills
Actions or behaviors of client uses to locate, identify, and responded to sensations to select, interpret, associate, organize, and remember sensory events the associations that include visual, auditory, proprioceptive, tactile, olfactory, gustatory, and vestibular sensations
Sleep
A natural periodic state of rest for the mind and body, in which the eyes usually close and consciousness is completely or partially lost, so that there is a decrease in bodily movement and responsiveness to external stimuli.
Social environment
Constructed by the presence, relationships, and expectations of persons, organizations, and populations
Social justice
Ethical distribution and sharing of resources, rice, and responsibilities between people, recognizing their equal worth as citizens. Recognizes their equal right to be able to meet basic needs, the need to spread opportunities in life chances as widely as possible, and the requirement that we reduce and where possible eliminate unjustified inequalities
Social Justice 2
The promotion of social and economic change to increase individual, community, and political awareness, resources, and opportunity for health and well-being
Social participation
Organize patterns of behavior that are characteristic and expected of an individual in a given position within social system
Spirituality
Personal quest for understanding answers to ultimate questions about life, about meaning, and about relationship with the sacred or transcendent, which may or may not lead to or arise from the development of religious rituals and the formation of community
Temporal
Location of occupational performance in time. The experience of time as shaped by engagement and occupations. Aspects include the rhythm, tempo, synchronization, duration, and sequence. Includes stages of life, time of day, duration, rhythm of activity, or history
Transactional
A process that involves two or more individuals or elements that reciprocally and continually influence and affect one another through the ongoing relationship
Values
Principles, standards, or qualities considered worthwhile or desirable by the client to holds them
Virtual
Environment in which communication occurs by means of airways for computers and an absence of physical contact. Includes simulated, real-time, or near time existence of an environment, such as chat rooms, email, videoconferencing, and radio transmissions
Wellness
An active process through which individuals become aware of and make choices toward a more successful existence. More than a lack of disease symptoms. State of mental and physical balance and fitness
Work
Activities needed for engaging in remunerative employment or volunteer activities
Occupational therapy's domain
Supporting health and participation in life through engagement and occupation
Occupational therapy's process
Collaboration between the practitioner and the client is central to the interactive nature of service delivery
Domain Areas of Occupation
ADLs, IADLs, rest and sleep, education, work, play, leisure, social participation
Domain client factors
Values, beliefs, and spirituality, body functions, body structures
Domain Performance skills
Sensory perceptual skills, motor and praxis skills, emotional regulation skills, cognitive skills, communication and social skills
Domain performance patterns
Habits, routines, roles, rituals
Domain context and environment
Cultural, personal, physical, social, temporal, virtual
Domain activity demands
Objects used and their properties, space demands, social demands, sequencing and timing, required actions, required body functions, required body structures
Activities of daily living 2
Area of Occ. Bathing and showering, bowel and bladder management, dressing, eating, feeding, functional mobility, personal device care, personal hygiene and grooming, sexual activity, toilet hygiene
Instrumental activities of daily living 2
Area of Occ. Care of others including selecting and supervising caregivers, care of pets, child rearing, communication management, community mobility, financial management, health management and maintenance, home establishment and management, meal preparation and cleanup, religious observance, safety and emergency maintenance, shopping
Rest and sleep
Area of Occ. Rest, sleep, sleep preparation, sleep participation
Education
Area of Occ. Formal educational participation, informal personal educational needs or interests exploration, informal personal educational participation
Work
Area of Occ. Employment interests and pursuits, employment seeking and acquisition, job performance, retirement preparation and adjustment, volunteer exploration, volunteer participation
Play 2
Area of Occ. Play exploration, play participation
Leisure
Area of Occ. Leisure exploration, leisure participation
Social participation
Area of Occ. Community, family, peer, friend
Mental functions
Specific: higher level cognitive, attention, memory, perception, thought, mental functions of sequencing complex movement, emotional, experience of self in time. Global mental functions: consciousness, orientation, temperament and personality, energy and drive, sleep
Sensory functions and pain
Seeing and related functions, hearing functions, vestibular functions, taste functions, smell functions, proprioreceptive functions, touch functions, pain, temperature and pressure
Neuromusculoskeletal and movement related functions
Functions of joints and bones: joint mobility, joint stability, muscle power, muscle tone, muscle endurance, motor reflexes, involuntary movement reactions, control of voluntary movement, gait patterns
ADA objects and their properties
Tools, materials, and equipment used in the process of carrying out the activity
ADA space demands
Physical environmental requirements of the activity
ADA social demands
Social environment and cultural context that may be required by the activity
ADA sequencing and timing
Process used to carry out the activity
ADA required actions and performance skills
The usual skills that would be required by any performer to carry out the activity. Sensory, perceptual, motor, praxis, emotional, cognitive, communication, and social performance skills should each be considered. Performance skills demand by activity will be correlated with the demands of other activities aspects
ADA required body functions
Physiological functions of body systems that are required to support the actions used to perform the activity
ADA required body structures
Anatomical parts of the body such as organs, limbs, and their components that are required to perform the activity
Process of service delivery
Occupational profile, analysis of occupational performance, intervention plan, intervention implementation, intervention review, outcomes
Therapeutic use of self
Intervention Process: An OT practitioners planned use of his or her personality, insights, perception, and judgments as part of the therapeutic process
Therapeutic use of occupations and activities
Intervention process: Occupations and activities selected for specific clients that meet therapeutic goals.
Consultation process
A type of intervention in which OT practitioners use their knowledge and expertise to collaborate with the client. The collaborative process involves identifying the problem, creating possible solutions, trying solutions, and altering them as necessary for great greater effectiveness. When providing consultation the practitioner is not directly responsible for the outcome of the intervention.
Education process
An intervention process that involves imparting knowledge and information about occupation, health, and participation and that does not result in the actual performance of the occupation/activity
Advocacy
Type of intervention: Efforts directed toward promoting occupational justice and empowering clients to seek and obtain resources to fully participate in their daily life occupations
Create, promote
An intervention approach that does not assume a disability is present or that any factor would interfere with performance. Approach is designed to provide enriched contextual and activity experiences that will enhance performance for all persons in the natural context of life.
Establish, restore
An intervention approach designed to change client variables to establish a skill or ability that has not yet developed or to restore a skill or ability that has been impaired
Maintain
An intervention approach designed to provide the supports that will allow clients to preserve the performance capabilities they have regained, that continue to meet their occupational needs, or both. The assumption is that, without continued maintenance intervention, performance would decrease, occupational needs would not be met, or both, thereby affecting health and quality-of-life.
Modify (compensation, adaptation)
An intervention approach directed at finding ways to revise the current context activity demands to support performance in the natural setting, including compensatory techniques, such as enhancing some features to provide cues or reducing other features to reduce distractibility
Prevent (disability prevention)
An intervention approach designed to address clients with her without a disability you're at risk for occupational performance problems. This approach is designed to prevent the occurrence for evolution of barriers performance in context. Interventions may be directed at client, context, or activity variables