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Terms in this set (35)
Box 1: "important takeaways"
What is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease?
What has been the dietary focus for decreasing hypertension?
Processes foods are predominantly high in these two molecules, which the latter might be more strongly and directly associated with hypertension and cardiometabolic risk.
What molecule should clinicians shift their focus to in controlling hypertension?
Reduction in intake of added sugars (mainly fructose) from the industrial-manufactured consumables would do what to the body?
Help with the broader problem of related cardiometabolic disease.
A decrease in Na+ from processed foods may lead to an increase in their consumption. How would this be bad?
Greater prevalence of cardiometabolic disease from sugar
Higher sugar intake significantly increases BP (6.9/5.6 mmHg) in an 8 week trial. How can these number's be increased?
When you exclude the studies supported by the sugar industries. (7.6/6.1 mmHg)
Ingesting one 24 oz soft drink has been shown to cause an average maximum increase in blood pressure of how much?
15/9 mm Hg
HR: 9 bpm
Those who consume 25% or more calories from added sugar have how much of an increased risk of death due to cardiovascular disease?
What has been shown to stimulate sympathetic tone directly and indirectly by inciting insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia
An increase in what is one likely mechanism for the sugar's ability to increase HR, cardiac output, renal sodium retention, and vascular resistance, all of which may interact to elevate blood pressure and increase myocardial oxygen demand
sympathetic tone from the overconsumption of fructose
A (a)_________-______ diet for just 2 weeks not only significantly increased 24 h ambulatory (+7/5 mm Hg, p<0.004 and p=0.007, respectively) and increased pulse rate by (b)____% (4 bpm), but also increased (c)____________, (d)______________, and (e)_______________(a measure of insulin resistance and β-cell function). Excess fructose intake has also been shown to (f)_________ the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome
d. fasting insulin
e. homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index
Current US per capita intake of added sugars is approximately how many times higher than current records by the American Heart Association (AHA) and WHO?
Considering adolescents specifically, current consumption might be as much as how many times higher?
2-8x higher than current records
6-16x with adolescents
Ingestion of sugars, including fructose, in what is not harmful and is likely beneficial?
Naturally occurring biological context (ex. fruits)
What listed beverage is highest in sugar?
Mountain Dew (77 g)
Which listed breakfast food is highest in sugar?
Which is lowest?
Highest: Cinnabon Cinnamon Roll (55g)
Lowest: Nutrigrain Cereal Bar, Strawberry (13 g)
Which of the sauces listed have the most amount of sugar, and which have the least in order?
Heinz Tomato Ketchup
Prego Marinara Spaghetti Sauce
Kraft Spicy Honey BBQ Sauce
Kraft Spicy Honey BBQ Sauce - 13g
Heinz Tomato Ketchup - 8 g
Prego Marinara Spaghetti Sauce - 7 g
What are the 5 conventional risk modifications that can be accomplished with lifestyle to reduce hypertension risk?
a. Reduced sodium intake
b. Increase exercise
c. Modulate alcohol consumption
d. Lose weight
e. DASH diet
What percentage reduction in all-cause mortality in moth men and women was demonstrated with over 10 years adherence to the Mediterranean diet?
What is the outcome of the HALE study?
Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and a healthful lifestyle assocociated with >50% lower rate of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in 70-90 yo
What is the main fat source in the Mediterranean diet and what is the principle fatty acid in that fat source?
a. Olive oil- MUFA (oleic acid: omega-9)
Which compound prevents lipoperoxidation and improves endothelial function?
Phenolic compounds prevent lipoperoxidation and improve endothelial function
what is the benefit of cocoa?
reduction in blood pressure
What are the DASH diet's 3 groups that were studied?
What were their outcomes?
Control diet: no results
Fruits/Veggies diet: no results
DASH diet: Reducing in sys (-3.5) and dias (2.1) in pre-hypertensive, and significant reduction in stage 1 hypertensive (11.4/5.5)
What amount of BP reduction can be expected from isolated exercise session or exercise training?
Systolic 5-7 mm Hg reduction- can last up to 22 hrs
What is the recommended dose of exercise in minutes per day and frequency from the American College of Sports Medicine?
Pref 7 days, mod intensity, at least 30 mins, primarily endurance supported by resistance
What function does coenzyme Q10 play in the body?
Crucial cofactor in the transport chain and ox phos for producing ATP
What effect do statin drugs and some beta blockers have on endogenous production of coenzyme Q10?
Some statins and beta-blockers can reduce endo prod of CoQ10 by as much as 40%
What is the effect of supplementation of coQ10 on patients with hypertension based on a 2007 meta-analysis?
Could lower sys BP by 17, dias 10 mm Hg w/out sig side effects
What is the relationship with low dietary magnesium intake and blood pressure?
Appears to be beneficial and nontoxic
Used for preeclampsia
What is the effect of weight loss on blood pressure?
Better BP reduction than prescription drugs orlistat and sibutramine
What is the effect of fiber on blood pressure?
Sig reduces BP
Req at least 8 wks to achieve max reduction
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