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Chapter 3: The Human Body: A Nutrition Perspective
Terms in this set (104)
The intestinal cells that line the villi; these cells participate in nutrient absorption.
The process by which substances are taken up from the GI tract and enter the bloodstream or lymph.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
A breakdown product of ATP, ADP is synthesized into ATP using energy from foodstuffs and a phosphate group (abbreviated P1).
Not requiring oxygen.
A group of two sphintcers (inner and outer) that help control expulsion of feces from the body.
Blood protein (immunoglobulin) that binds foreign proteins found in the body. This helps to prevent and control infections.
Any substance that induces a state of sensitivity and/or resistance to microorganisms or toxic substances after a lag period; foreign substance that stimulates a specific aspect of the immune system.
Last portion of the BI tract; serves as an outlet for that organ.
Starch-digesting enzyme produced by the salivary glands or pancreas.
A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.
A liver secretion stored in the gallbladder and released through the common bile duct into the first segment of the small intestine. It is essential for the digestion and absorption of fat.
A moistened mass of food swallowed fromt he oral cavity into the pharynx.
A microscopic blood vessel that connects the smallest arteries and veins; site of nutrient, oxygen, and waste exchange between body cells and the blood.
The body system consisting of the hear, blood vessels, and blood. This system transports nutrients, waste products, gases, and hormones throughout the body and plays an important role in immune responses and regulation of body temperature.
Immunological or allergic reaction to the protein gluten in certain grains, such as wheat and rye. The effect is to destroy the intestinal enterocytes resulting in a much reduced surface area due to flattening of the villi. Elimination of wheat, rye, and certain other grains from the diet restores the intestinal surface.
A process in which certain white blood cells come in contact with the invading cells to destroy them.
An organelle bound by its own double membrane and containing chromosomes, the genetic information for cell protein synthesis and cell replication.
A single, large DNA molecule and its associated proteins; contains many genes to store and transmit genetic information.
A mixture of stomach secretions and partially digested food.
Protein tissue that holds different structures in the body together. Some body structures are made up of connective tissue - notably, tendons and cartilage. Connective tissue also forms part of bone and the non-muscular structures of arteries and veins.
A condition characterized by infrequent bowel movements.
Inherited disease that can cause overproduction of mucus. Mucus can block the pancreatic duct, decreasing enzyme output.
The fluid and organelles (except the nucleus) in a cell.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
The site of hereditary information in cells; DNA directs the synthesis of cell proteins.
The process by which large ingested molecules are mechanically and chemically broken down to produce basic nutrients that can be absorbed across the wall of the GI tract.
The body system consisting of the gastrointestinal tract and accessory structures such as the liver, gallbladder, and the pancreas. This system performs the mechanical and chemical processes of digestion, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of wastes.
A hormone-producing gland.
The body system consisting of the various glands and the hormones these glands secrete. This system has major regulatory functions in the body, such as reproduction and cell metabolism.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
An organelle in the cytoplasm composed of a network of canals running through the cytoplasm. Part of the endoplasmic reticulum contains ribosomes.
A continual recycling of compounds such as bile acids between the small intestine and the liver.
A compound that speeds the rate of a chemical reaction but is not altered by the reaction. Almost all enzymes are proteins (some are made of genetic material).
The flap that folds down over the trachea during swallowing.
A hormone also known as adrenaline; it is released by the adrenal glands (located on each kidney) and various nerve endings in the body. It acts to increase glycogen breakdown in the liver, among other functions.
The surface cells that line the outside of the body and all external passages within it.
A hormone secreted mostly by the kidneys that enhances red blood cell synthesis and stimulates red blood cell release from bone marrow.
A tube in the GI tract that connects the pharynx with the stomach.
An organ attached to the underside of the liver; site of bile storage, concentration, and eventual secretion.
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Disease that results from stomach acid backing up into the esophagus. The acid irritates the lining of the esophagus, causing pain.
Gastrointestinal (GI) tract
The main sites in the body used for digestion and absorption of nutrients. It consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus. Also called the digestive tract.
A specific segment on a chromosome. Genes provide the blueprint for the production of cell proteins.
Use of DNA information on a gene to produce a protein. Thought to be a major determination of cell development.
The cell organelle near the nucleus that processes newly synthesized protein for secretion or distribution to other organelles.
Medications, such as cimetidine (Tagamet), that blocks the increase of stomach acid producion caused by histamine.
A breakdown product of the amino acid histidine that stimulates acid secretion by the stomach and has other effects on the body, such as contraction of smooth muscles, increased nasal secretions, relaxation of blood vessels, and changes in relaxation of airways.
The ring of smooth muscle between the end of the small intestine and the large intestine.
The body system consisting of white blood cells, lymph glands and vessels, and various other body tissues. The immune system provides defense against foreign invaders, primarily due to the action of various types of white blood cells.
Proteins found in the blood that bind to specific antigens; also called antibodies. The five major classes of immunogloblulins play different roles in antibody-mediated immunity.
A medication or other substance that stimulates evacuatio of the intestinal tract.
Fat-digesting enzyme produced by the salivary glands, stomach, and pancreas.
Lower Esophageal Sphincter
A circular muscle that constricts the opening of the esophagus to the stomach. Also called the gastroesophageal sphincter.
A clear fluid that flows through lymph vessels; carries most forms of fat after their absorption by the small intestine.
A system of vessels and lymph that accepts fluid surrounding cells and large particles, such as products of fat absorption. Lymph eventually passes into the bloodstream from the lymphatic system.
A cellular organelle that contains digestive enzymes for use inside the cell for turnover of cell parts.
An enzyme produced by a variety of cells; it can destroy bacteria by rupturing their cell membranes.
The main sites for energy production in a cell. They contain the pathway for oxidizing fat for fuel, among other metabolic pathways.
Generally ,the ability to move spontaneously. It also refers to movement of food through the GI tract.
A thick fluid secreted by many cells throughout the body. It contains a compound that has both carbohydrate and proteins parts. It acts as a lubricant and means of protection for cells.
A type of tissue adapted to contract to cause movement.
A lipid and protein combination (lipoprotein) that covers nerve fibers.
The body system consisting of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors. This system detects sensations, directs movements, and controls physiological and intellectual functions.
The structural and functional unit of the nervous system. Consists of a cell body, dendrites, and an axon.
A compound made by a nerve cell that allows for communication between it and other cells.
Defenses that stop the invasion of pathogens; requires no previous encounter with a pathogen.
A neurotransmitter from nerve endings and a hormone from the adrenal gland. It is released in times of stress and is involved in hunger regulation, blood glucose regulation, and other body processes.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; includes aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil), and naproxen (Aleve).
Study of how food impacts health through its interaction with our genes and its subsequent effect on gene expression.
A group of tissues designed to perform a specific function - for example, the heart, which contains muscle tissue, nerve tissue, and so on.
A coordinated muscular contraction used to propel food down the gastrointestinal tract.
A cell organelle that destroys toxic products within the cell.
A measure of the relative acidity or alkalinity of a solution. The pH scale is 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is neutral; a pH below 7 is acidic; a pH above 7 is alkaline.
Cells that engulf substances; include neutrophils and macrophages.
A process in which a cell forms an indentation, and particles or fluids entering the indentation are then engulfed by the cell.
The organ of the digestive tract and respiratory tract located at the back of the oral and nasal cavities, commonly known as the throat.
Any of a class of fat-related substances that contain phosphorus, fatty acids, and a nitrogen-containing component. Phospholipids are an essential part of every cell.
The fluid, extracellular portion of the circulating blood. This includes the blood serum plus all blood-clotting factors. in contrast, serum is the fluid that remains after clotting factors have been removed from plasma.
The portion of the circulatory system that uses a large vein (portal vein) to carry nutrient-rich blood from capillaries in the intestines and portions of the stomach to the liver.
Large vein leaving the intestine and stomach and connecting to the liver.
Substance that stimulates bacterial growth in the large intestines.
Protein-digesting enzyme produced by the stomach, small intestine, and pancreas.
Proton Pump Inhibitor
A medication that inhibits the ability of gastric cells to secrete hydrogen ions. Low doses of this class of medication are also available without prescription (e.g., omeprazole [Prilosec]).
The ring of smooth muscle between the stomach and the small intestine.
A site in a cell at which compounds (such as hormones) bind. Cells that contain receptors for a specific compound are partially controlled by the compound.
Terminal portion of the large intestine.
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
The single-stranded nucleic acid involved in the transcription of genetic information and translation of that information into protein structure.
Cytoplasmic particles that mediate the linking together of amino acids to form proteins; may exist freely in the cytoplasm or attached to endoplasmic reticulum.
Watery fluid, produced by the salivary glands in the mouth, that contains lubricants, enzymes, and other substances.
A starch-digesting enzyme produced by salivary glands.
Membrane-bound vesicles produced by the Golgi apparatus; contain protein and other compounds to be secreted by the cell.
Function of lymphocytes directed at specific antigens.
The space between one neuron and another neuron (or cell).
Hormones produced by the thyroid gland that among their functions increase the rate of overall metabolism in the body.
Collections of cells adapted to perform a specific function.
Information on DNA needed to make a protein is copied onto RNA.
The information contained in RNA is used to determine the amino acids in a protein.
Erosion of the tissue lining, usually in the stomach (gastric ulcer) or the upper small intestine (duodenal ulcer). As a group these are generally referred to as peptic ulcers.
A brothy, meaty, savory flavor in some foods. Monosodium glutamate enhances this flavor when added to foods.
Nitrogenous waste product of protein metabolism; major source of nitrogen in the urine.
Tube that transports urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
Tube that transports urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
The body system consisting of the kidneys, urinary bladder, and the ducts that carry urine. This system removes waste products from the circulatory system and regulates blood acid-base balance, overall chemical balance, and water balance in the body.
A blood vessel that carries blood to the heart.
The fingerlike protrusions into the small intestine that participate in digestion and absorption of food.
White Blood Cells
One of the formed elements of the circulating blood system; also called leukocytes. White blood cells are able to squeeze through intracellular spaces and migrate. They phagocytize bacteria, fungi, and viruses, as well as detoxify proteins that may result from allergic reactions, cellular injury, and other immune system cells.
What are infants with cleft lips or palates are at risk for?
What is Vitamin E made up of?
Lyla is a 23 year old single mom. She consumes on the average 2,450 calories. TRUE or FALSE, Lyla's Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) for fiber is 28 grams.
Sucrose lactose and maltose are all examples of
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