32 terms

Chapter 7 - Friedland and Relyea + Module 31

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Demography
The study of human populations and population trends
Demographer
A scientist in the field of demography
Immigration
The movement of people into a country or region, from another country or region
Emigration
The movement of people out of a country or region
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
The number of births per 1,000 individuals per year
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
The number of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year
Doubling Time
The number of years it takes a population to double = 70/growth rate
Total Fertitlity Rate (TFR)
An estimate of the average number of children that each woman in a population will bear throughout her childbearing years
Replacement-level Fertility
The total fertility rate required to offset the average number of deaths in a population in order to maintain the current population size
Developed Country
A country with relatively high levels of industrialization and income
Developing Country
A country with relatively low levels of industrialization and income
Life Expectancy
The average number of years that an infant born in a particular year in a particular country can be expected to live, given the current average life span and death rate in that country
Infant Mortality
The number of deaths of children under one year of age per 1,000 live births
Child Mortality
The number of deaths of children under age 5 per 1,000 live births
Net Migration Rate
The difference between immigration and emigration in a given year per 1,000 people in a country
Age Structure Diagram
A visual representation of the number of individuals within specific age groups for a country, typically expresses for males and females
Population Pyramid
An age structure diagram that is widest at the bottom and smallest at the top, typical of developing countries
Population Momentum
Continued population growth after growth reduction measures have been impemented
Theory of Demographic Transition
The theory that as a country moves from a subsistence economy to industrialized and increased affluence it undergoes a predictable shift in population growth
Affluence
The state of having plentiful wealth including the possession of money, goods, or property
Family Planning
The practive of regulating the number of offspring through the use of birth control
IPAT Equation
An equation used to estimate the impact of the human lifestyle on the environment: impact = population x affluence x technology
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
A measure of the value of all products and services produced in one year in one country
Urban Area
An area that contains more than 385 people per square kilometer (1,000 people per square mile)
undernutrition
not consuming enough calories to be healthy
malnourished
having a diet that lacks the correct balance of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals
food security
the state of having reliable access to a sufficient quantity of affordable, nutritious food that meets their dietary needs for an active and healthy life
food insecurity
a condition in which people do not have adequate access to food
famine
a time when there is so little food that many people starve
anemia
a deficiency of iron
overnutrition
ingestion of too many calories and a lack of balance of foods and nutrients
meat
livestock or poultry consumed as food

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