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89 terms

AP Psych Brain/Biology

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Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
division that connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body; divided into somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
neural impulse
action potential; the firing of a nerve cell; the entire process of the electrical charge (message/impulse) traveling through inner on; can be as fast as 400 fps (with myelin) or 3 fps (no myelin)
motor projection areas
primary motor cortex; areas of the three boat cortex for response messages from the brain to the muscles and glands
endocrine glands
the bodies "slow" chemical communication by secreting hormones directly into the bloodstream
synaptic cleft
synaptic gap or synaptic space; tiny gap between the terminal of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron (almost never touch); location of the transfer of an impulse from one neuron to the next
parasympathetic division
a branch of the autonomic nervous system that maintains normal body functions; it calms the body ever conserves energy
cerebral cortex
80% of weight of human brain; 70% of CNS's neurons; wrinkled outer portion of un-myelin aided cells (cerebrum) covering both hemispheres; processes thought, vision, language, memory, and emotions; most recently of all part of nervous system
behavioral genetics
study of hereditary influences and how it influences behavior and thinking
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid; genetic formation in a double-helix; can replicate or reproduce itself; made of genes
acetylcholine (ACh)
distributed widely throughout CNS; involved in arousal, attention, memory, motivation, and movement; involved in muscle action at neuromuscular joints (skeletal muscles); implicated in Alzheimer's disease-loss of memory and severe language problems; too much dopamine = spasms and tremors; too little dopamine = paralysis and torpor
interneurons
connection neurons; Association neurons that carry messages to another neuron
serotonin
"mood molecule"; chemical that affects regulation asleep, dreaming, mood, hunger, pain, and aggressive behavior; and attaches to many receptors (receptor sites)
dopamine
chemical that influences voluntary movement, learning, pleasure, memory,-is implicated in Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia; in Parkinson's disease a causes tremors, muscle spasms, increasing muscular rigidity; recently implicated in ADHD
occipital lobe
part of cerebral cortex that receives visual information
axon
Greek for axle; a single long, fluid-filled tube that carries outgoing messages to other neurons, muscles, or glands; can be 1 or 2 mm to 3 feet in length; often referred to as a nerve or tract; bundled together
endocrine system
the body slow chemical communication system which is made up of a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream; made of the glands-pineal, pituitary, parathyroid, thyroid, pancreas, and adrenal, ovaries and testes
parathyroid
for glands embedded in the thyroid; secretes parathormone; controls announces level of calcium and phosphate (which influence levels of excitability)
reticular formation (RF) (RES)
netlike system of neurons that weaves through limbic system and plays an important role in attention, arousal, and alert functions; arouses and alerts higher parts of the brain; anesthetics work by temporary shutting off RF system
pituitary gland
endocrine gland that produces a large amount of hormones; it regulates growth and helps control other endocrine glands; located on underside of brain
frontal lobe
part of the cerebral cortex; coordinates messages from other cerebral lobes; involved in complex problem-solving tasks, thinking, self-control, judgment, emotion regulation, personality affects, concentration, goal directed behavior; restructures in teen years
hypothalamus
small area of the brain that is part of the limbic system and regulates behaviors related to survival such as, eating, drinking, sexual behaviors, motivation
neural plasticity
Ability of the brain to change their experience, both structurally and chemically
forebrain
top of the brain which includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex; responsible for emotional regulation, complex thought, memory aspect of personality
brainstem
top of the spinal column
graded potential
shift in electrical charge in a tiny area of the neuron (temporary); transmits a long cell membranes leaving neuron and polarized state; needs higher than normal threshold of excitation to fire
strain studies
studies of hereditability it be a behavioral traits using animals that have been inbred to produce strains that are genetically similar to one another
family studies
studies of hereditability on the assumption that if a gene influences a certain trait, close relatives should be more similar on that trait in distant relative
identical twins
twins from a single fertilized oval with the same genetic makeup
epinephrine
adrenaline; activates a sympathetic nervous system by making the heart beat faster, stopping digestion, enlarging pupils, sending sugar into the bloodstream, preparing a blood clot faster
hippocampus
a curved portion of the forebrain structure that is part of the limbic system and is involved in learning and processing new memories
neurogenesis
production of new brain cells; November 1988: cancer patients proved that new neurons grew until the end of life
cerebellum
"little brain"; part of the brain that coordinates balance, movement, reflexes
limbic system
a donut ring-shaped of loosely connected structures located in the forebrain between the central core and cerebral hemispheres; consists of: septum, cingulate gyrus, endowments, hypothalamus, and to campus, and amygdala; associated with emotions and memories
autonomic nervous system
a division of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary functions; it takes a message from the central nervous system to the internal organs
relative refractory period
a period after firing when a neuron is returning to its normal polarize state and will only fire again if the incoming message open parentheses impulse) is stronger than usual; returning to arresting state
insulin
hormone backpacks in the regulation of blood sugar by acting in the utilization of carbohydrates; released by pancreas; too much-hypoglycemia, too little-diabetes
synaptic vesicles
tiny oval-shaped sacs in a terminal of one neuron; assist in transferring mineral impulse from one neuron to another neuron by releasing specific neurotransmitters
absolute refractory period
a. After firing when a neuron will not fire again no matter how strong the incoming message may be; length-1000th of a second
norepinephrine
noradrenaline; chemical which is excitatory, similar to adrenaline, and affects arousal and memory; raises blood pressure by causing blood vessels to become constricted, but also carried by bloodstream to the anterior pituitary which relaxes ACTH thus prolonging stress response
dendrites
the bushy, branching extensions of the cell body that receives messages and conducts impulses; Greek for tree
human genomes
30,000 genes needed to build a human
twin studies
studies as identical and rhetorical twins to determine relative influence of heredity and environment on human behavior
endorphins
chemical inhibiting the transmission of pain, often experienced during exercise, i.e. "runner's high"; discovered in 1970s when trying to find out how opiates were (morphine, heroin); "endorphins" is a pharmacological (drug/med) term
myelin sheath
a white, lipoid (fatty) material in casing many neuron fibers and enables faster transmission of an impulse; white matter; it's pinched at intervals; not on all neurons but found throughout the body; insulin to prevent interference from other neurons
sympathetic division
a branch of the autonomic nervous system and prepares the body for quick action in emergencies; fight or flight; busiest when frightened, angry, or aroused; increases heart rate, increases breathing rate, enlarges pupils, stops digestion; connects to all internal organs; sudden reaction
ions
electrically charged particles found both inside and outside a neuron; negative ions are found inside the cell membrane in a polarized neuron
Association areas
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions, rather, they are involved in higher mental processes such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
Genetics
study of how traits are transmitted from one generation to the next
recessive gene
member of the gene terror that controls the appearance of a certain trait only if it is paired with the same gene
thyroid gland
located in the net; it regulates metabolism by secreting two hormones: thyroxine and parathormone
midbrain
the middle division of brain responsible for hearing and sight; location where pain is registered; includes temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and most of the parietal lobe
polarization
when the neuron is at rest; condition of neuron when the inside of the neuron is negatively charged relative to the outside of Enron; is necessary to generate the neuron signal in release of this polarization
resting potential
when a neuron is in polarization; more negative ions are inside the neuron cell membrane with a positive ions on the outside, causing a small electrical charge; release of this charge generates a neuron's impulse (signal/message)
glial cells
Greek for glue; forms myelin sheath; holds neuron in place; provides nourishment and removes waste; prevents harmful substances from entering bloodstream; may play important role in memory and learning; affects brain's response to new experiences
dominant genes
member of a gene terror that controls the appearance of a certain trait
pons
part of the brain involved in sleep regulation also connects a cerebellum to the cerebral cortex; sleep and wake cycles
thyroxine
released by thyroid; hormone that regulates the body's metabolism; OVERACTIVE-over-excitability, insomnia, reduced attention span, fatigue, snap decisions, reduced concentration (hyperthyroidism); UNDERACTIVE-desire to sleep, constantly tired, weight gain (hypothyroidism)
nerve
bundles of axons
chromosomes
pair of threadlike bodies within the cell ridiculous; contains genes
somatic nervous system
division of peripheral nervous system; carries messages from afferent neurons central nervous system and between central nervous system to skeletal muscles; controls voluntary actions
gonads
reproductive glands-male, testes; female, ovaries
receptor site
a location on a receptor neurons which is like a key to a lock (with a specific nerve transmitter); allows for orderly pathways
psychobiology
study that focuses on biological foundations of behavior and mental processes; overlaps with neuroscience
Central nervous system (CNS)
the brain and spinal cord; 90% of the bodies neurons
medulla
part of the brain which controls living functions such as breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature
neuron
100 billion in brain; individual cells that are the smallest unit of the nervous system; it has three classes: efferent, afferent, and interneurons; made of Colin dendrites, axons, synaptic gap, terminal buttons, synaptic vesicles, and sometimes myelin
selection studies
studies that estimate the hereditability of a trait by breeding animals with another animal that has the same trait
(beta) endorphins
a natural painkiller released by the body, often experienced during exercise; discovered in 1970s when investigating how opiates were; beta endorphins are natural
spinal cord
a bundle of neuron axons which act like cables carrying messages to the PNS; connects brain to the rest of the body; wrapped in myelin and, surrounded and protected by vertebral bones; spinal injuries-paralysis, bowel/bladder control, low blood pressure
hindbrain
division which includes the cerebellum, Pons, and medulla; responsible for involuntary processes: blood pressure, body temperature, heart rate, breathing, sleep cycles
adrenal glands
located above the kidney and secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine; stimulated by autonomic nervous system
motor neurons
efferent neurons; neurons that carry messages from spinal cord/brain to muscles and glands
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers released by synaptic vesicles and travel through the synaptic gap assisting neural impulses (messages) as they leave one neuron to the next; affects adjacent neurons; examples: ACh, dopamine, serotonin, endorphins, and norepinephrine, glutamate, GABA, and glycine
parathormone
hormone that controls imbalances levels of calcium and phosphate in the blood and tissue fluid; influences levels of excitability; secreted by parathyroids
genes
elements that control transmission of traits; on the chromosomes
hormones
serves a function similar to neurotransmitters in that they carry messages; chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream; manufactured by glands (mostly); help regulate bodily functions
synapse
the point of communication between two neurons-includes axon terminal of the sending neuron, the synaptic space (gap), and dendrites/cell body of the receiving neuron
pancreas
organ lying between the stomach and small intestine; regulates blood sugar by secreting to regulating hormones: insulin and glucagon
thalamus
motor sensory relay center for four of the five senses; and with a brain stem and composed of two egg-shaped structures; integrates in shades incoming sensory signals; Mnemonic-"don't smell the llamas because the llamas smell bad"
temporal lobe
involved in complex visual tasks and processing; balance; emotional regulation and maturity; Strong oral and language comprehension; smell; hearing; still developing after age 16
ACTH (arenocorticotropic hormone)
released by adrenal glands; triggered by norepinephrine to prolong the response to stress (used in the sympathetic nervous system)
polygenic inheritance
process by which several genes interact to produce a certain trait; responsible for most important traits
parietal lobe
part of the cerebral cortex never see sensory information from skin, muscles, joints, organs, taste buds; involved in spatial/visual abilities and integrates all sensory signals; immature until age 16
amniocentesis
collection of fetal cells and testing them for genetic abnormalities; using a long needle to withdraw cells from third trimester pregnant woman; uses amniotic fluid which surrounds fetus in the womb
axon terminal
terminal button, synaptic knob; the structure at the end of an excellent terminal branch; houses the synaptic vesicles and neurotransmitters
corpus callosum
large band of white neural fibers that connects to to brain hemispheres and carries messages between them; myelinated; involved in intelligence, consciousness, and self-awareness; does it reach full maturity until 20s
neuroscience
study of the brain and nervous system; overlaps with psychobiology
sensory neurons
afferent neurons; neurons that carry messages from sensory organs to the brain and spinal cords
fraternal twins
two children developed on two separate eggs that share a room; no more genetically similar than other brother and sisters (i.e. different genetic makeup)