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tests designed to measure a person's general mental abilities and predict how well should do in school
general term referring to the ability or abilities involved in learning and/or adaptive abilities; tested by intelligence tests
Triarchic Theory Of Intelligence
developed by Robert Sternberg (1986); theory that intelligence involves a broad variety of skills that influence our effectiveness in many areas of life; suggests 3 basic kinds of intelligence: mental skills (analytical aspect), insight and creative adaptability (creative aspect), and environmental responsiveness (practical aspect)
component of Sternberg's Triarchic theory; AKA analytical intelligence; refers to the mental processes emphasized by most theories of intelligence such as learning how to do things, acquiring new knowledge, problem solving, and carrying out tasks effectively; enables people to get along successfully in the world
component of Sternberg's Triarchic theory; AKA creative intelligence; refers to the ability to adjust to new tasks, use new concepts, combine information in novel ways, respond effectively in new situations, gain insight and adapt creatively.
component of Sternberg's Triarchic theory; AKA practical intelligence; refers to the ability to find solutions to realistic and personal problems, make the most of talents by seeking out situations that match skills, shaping situations to work the skills, and knowing when to change the situations to better fit their talents; not an ability taught in schools
Simon Scale first issued in 1905; consisted of 30 tests arranged in order of increasing difficulty; first test of intelligence, developed for testing children; created by Alfred Binet (director of the psychological laboratory at the Sorbonne, Paris, France) and Theodore Simon to identify children who might have difficulty in the French public school system; by 1908 enough children had been tested to predict how the average child would perform at each age level; allowed Binet to develop the concept of mental age
intelligence quotient; created by Lewis Terman based off of Binet's concept of mental age; numerical value given to intelligence that is determined from the scores on an intelligence test; average score is 100; MA/CA X 100 = IQ
Binet Intelligence Scale adaptation to the Binet Simon Scale developed by Lewis Terman in 1916; called such because Terman worked at Stanford; contains 15 subtests that measures 4 kinds of mental abilities that are universally considered to be the components of intelligence: verbal reasoning, abstract/visual reasoning, quantitative reasoning, and short term memory; test items vary according to person's age; test begins just below the expected mental age and the examiner determines the basal age (point where examinee answers 3 questions in a row correctly); best used for children, adolescents, and young adults
III Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition; developed in 1939 by David Wechsler (psychologist at Bellevue Hospital in NYC); created because a test was needed for adults; like the Stanford Binet but also includes components on handling life situations; 2 parts: verbal (information, simple arithmetic, & comprehension) and performance (find the missing part, copying patterns, arranging pictures); innovation is in scoring because it offers separate scores for verbal and performance as well as IQ; points are given for complexity of answer, reflective qualities of answer, speed and accuracy of answers
III Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 3rd Edition; developed by David Wechsler for children based in the same format as his test for adults; separate scores for verbal and performance as well as IQ
intelligence tests that minimize the use of language; designed for persons who do not read or write, or speak English; Examples: Seguin Form Board-1866, tests peoples with mental retardation, essentially a puzzle; Porteus Maze-series of increasingly difficult printed mazes where subjects trace their way out of the maze without lifting their pencil; Bayley Scales of Infant Development-1993, contains 3 scales: 1) perception, memory, and beginning of verbal communication, 2) sitting, standing, walking, & manual dexterity, 3) emotional, social & personality development assessment, can detect early signs of sensory & neurological defects, emotional difficulties, & home environment troubles
Culture Fair Tests
intelligence tests designed to reduce cultural bias by minimizing skills and values that vary from one culture to another; also minimizes or eliminates the use of language; tries to downplay skills and values, such as the need for speed, that vary from culture to culture; Examples: Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test-subjects are asked to draw the best picture of a person that the can, drawings are scored for proportions, correct and complete representations of the parts of the body, detail in clothing, etc (not on artistic talent); Culture-Fair Intelligence Test-designed by RB Cattell, combines some questions that demand verbal comprehension and specific cultural knowledge with questions that are not tied to North American culture, by comparing the 2 scores on the 2 kinds of questions, cultural factors can be isolated from general intelligence; Progressive Matrices-consists of 60 designs with a section removed where the subject is asked to match the missing section, involves logical relationships and requires discrimination
ability of a test to produce consistent and stable scores; can be determined by giving the same test over a period of time to see if the results are the same; criticism is the practice effect (remembering answers from one administration to the next)
method used to determine if a test is reliable while avoiding the practice effect; dividing the test into 2 parts and seeing if the scores of the 2 parts agree
statistical measures of the degree of association between two variables; method of expressing reliability
one measure of validity; refers to the test's having an adequate sample of questions measuring the skills or knowledge it is supposed to measure
one measure of validity; refers to the validity of a test as measured by a comparison of the test score and independent measures of what the test is designed to measure
condition of significantly sub-average intelligence combined with deficiencies in adaptive behavior; implies an inability to perform at least some of the ordinary tasks of daily living skills; IQ of 0-70 in categories of mild, moderate, severe, and profound
refers to superior IQ combined with demonstrated or potential ability in such areas as academic aptitude, creativity, and leadership; in Georgia children must qualify in 3 of 4 categories (IQ, achievement, motivation, & creativity); first studies by Lewis Terman in 1920s
ability to produce novel and socially valued ideas or objects; one aspect of intelligence; Examples: Torrance Test of Creative Thinking-describe a scene; Christensen-Guilford Test-lists words containing a given letter, names things in a category; Remote Associates Test (RAT)-verbal response to 3 unrelated words; Wallach and Kogan Creative Battery-associate elements into new combinations
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