45 terms

Electricity - grade 8

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Conductor
Material that allows electrical or heat energy to flow through easily
Insulator
Material that prevents electrical energy from flowing
Electrical Circuit
The pathway through which electrical current flows. Must contain wires, a power source, a component and a switch.
Atom
What all matter is made of
Electron
Tiny particles of an atom that have a negative charge
Closed Circuit
A circuit that is connected and allows an electrical current to flow
Open Circuit
A circuit that prevents electrical current from flowing because it is disconnected at some point
Electricity
Energy created by the movement of electrons
Static Electricity
Buildup of electric charge on an object. Created, for example, by rubbing a balloon to your hair
Electrical Current
The continuous flow of electric charge
Like Charges
charges that repel each other.
Unlike Charges / Opposite Charges
charges that attract each other
Battery
A group of cells connected together
AC Electricity
Electrons flow through a wire in a back-and-forth motion. Used in homes and businesses.
DC Electricity
Electrons flow through a wire in just one direction, like in a flashlight
Resistor
A device that slows or opposes the flow of electricity - used to convert electricity to other forms of energy
Voltage
The difference in electrical potential energy. It is also the "Force" (or push) of the electrons though the wire.
Amps
Measures the amount of electric current passing a point
Series Circuit
A circuit that contains only one path for current flow.
Parallel Circuit
A circuit in which there are two or more paths
Resistance
opposes the flow of electricity
Ohm's law
shows a relationship between current, voltage, and resistance
Volts
SI unit to measure voltage
chemical reactions
this occurs inside batteries to produce electric flow of charge
both a voltage source and a conductor
all electric circuits must have this
electric power
the rate at which a device changes electric current into another form of energy
short circuit
occurs when electric current follows a shorter path than what is intended in the circuit
the ground
stray current that leaks from a circuit is sent here
circuit breaker
a switch in a breaker box that turns off if wires carry too much current
fuse
a device with a piece of metal that melts in order to stop the flow of current
GFCI
type of outlet used where water may pose a risk
electric force
the attraction or repulsion between charged particles
conduction
transfer of electrons through direct contact between objects
electric field
space around a charged particle where electric force exists
electric discharge
a sudden flow of electrons from an object with a buildup of charges
losing electrons
causes an object to become charged
lightning bolt
example of electric discharge
repel
two particles do this if they have the same charges
attract
two particles do this if they have opposite charges
more resistance
provided by narrow, long wires
less resistance
provided by short, wide wires
amps
the SI unit for current
ohms
the SI unit for resistance
photovoltaic cell
uses light to produce energy
electrical safety features
3-prong plug, circuit breakers, GFCI outlets