27 terms

APES (Miller 18) Chapter 11 Hug HS

area of ocean needed to sustain the consumption of an average person, a nation, or the world
Asian swamp eel
invasive species of the south Florida waterways that rapidly reproduce and eats almost anything by sucking them in like a vacuum cleaner and can survive in cold weather and drought and can wriggle across dry land to invade new waterways
concentration of particular aquatic species suitable for commercial harvesting in a given ocean area or inland body of water
commercial extinction
overfishing leads to a time when it is no longer profitable to continue harvesting the affected species
purse-seine fishing
when large fishing vessels enclose a school of fish near the surface or in shallow areas which have been known
drift-net fishing
fish are caught by huge drifting nets that can hang as deep at 15 meters (50 feet) below the surface and extend to 64 km (40 miles) long
exclusive economic zones
a country's offshore fishing zone extends to 370 kilometers (200 nautical miles) from its shores. When a foreign fishing vessel takes a certain quota with the government's permission, it occurs in this zone.
integrated coastal management
a community-based effort to develop and use coastal resources more sustainably
marine protected areas (MPAs)
the global system of areas of ocean partially protected from human activities; there are more than 4,000 MPAs (write it out) worldwide
sustainable seafood
bottom-up pressure from consumers demanding more responsible fishing practices. Recommendations from watchdog organizations can help consumers choose seafood that's fished or farmed in ways that have less impact on the environment.
mitigation banking
this allows destruction of existing wetlands as long as an equal area of the same type of wetland is created or restored
zebra mussel
a thumbnail-sized mollusk that reproduces rapidly and has no known natural enemies in the Great Lakes. It has depleted the food supply for other aquatic species, clogged irrigation pipes, water supplies, fouled beaches, and jammed ship's rudders
research frontier
the scientific investigation of poorly understood marine aquatic systems that could lead to immense ecological and economic benefits
Undaria / wakame
an invasive brown seaweed which is spreading along the California coast. It grows rapidly and forms thick forests, choking out native kelps that provide habitat for sea otters, fish, and other marine life.
trawler fishing
this involves dragging a funnel-shaped net held open at the neck along the ocean bottom. It is weighted down with with chains or metal plates scrapping up almost everything that lies on the ocean floor and often destroys bottom habitats (think ocean clear cutting)
this fish catching process involves putting out lines up to 100 km (60 mi) long, hung with thousands of baited hooks, that catch not only fish but endangered sea turtles, dolphins, and seabirds each year
high seas
ocean areas beyond the legal jurisdiction of any country where it is hard to monitor and enforce the laws and treaties pertaining to them.
unwanted marine animals caught with the commercial catch
marine reserves
areas that are declared off-limits to destructive human activities in order to enable their ecosystems to recover and flourish
individual transfer rights / fish shares
allows countries to catch certain quantities of fish and to sell or lease their shares
fish farming operations
the rearing of aquatic animals or the cultivation of aquatic plants for food.
sea lamprey
parasite that attaches itself to almost any kind of fish and kills the victim by sucking out its blood
quagga mussel
a larger and more potentially destructive species of mollusk that can survive at greater depths and tolerate more extreme temperatures. It has reduced the food supply for many fish and other species causing major destruction to Lake Michigan's food web.
seabird found in Europe's North sea region that went under a 5 year study in 2009 and found that 95% of the birds studies had plastic in their stomachs.
great pacific garbage patch
collection of marine debris in the North Pacific Ocean. Marine debris is litter that ends up in oceans, seas, and other large bodies of water. The Great Pacific Garbage Patch, also known as the Pacific trash vortex, spans waters from the West Coast of North America to Japan.
carbon sink
Oceans are the biggest one of these; they take in more carbon dioxide than they give off
coral bleaching
the loss of color in corals that occurs when stressed corals expel the algae that live in them

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