314 terms



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Repeat speech as soon as you hear it
Instinctual Drift
Established habits, learned using operant techniques, are replaced by innate food behaviors
Visual Cues
Depth, Form, Motion, Constancy
What are examples of binocular cues?
Retinal Disparity and Convergence
eyes contract to close objects
Monocular cues
Relative size, interposition, relative height, shading and contour, motion parallax
One object overlaps another, allowing us to perceive depth
Our perception of objects doesn't change even if it looks different on retina
Light/dark adaptation
Pupils dilate/contract based on the amount of light it lets in
Just noticeable difference (JND)
threshold at which you notice a change in sensation
Weber's law (formula)
Delta I/I = k (constant)
Absolute threshold of sensation
minimum threshold needed to detect stimulus 50% of the time
Difference threshold
Smallest difference that can be detected 50% of the time
What influences the absolute threshold?
Expectations, experience, motivation, alertness
Head rotation
Semicircular canal contains endolymph, causes it to shift, tell which direction head is moving
Linear acceleration/head position
Otolith organs: contain Ca crystals which move and depolarize hair cells
Signal detection theory:
discerning between important stimuli and unimportant noise
Strength of signal/ strategy
d': strength (hit>miss - strong), c: strategy (conservative vs. liberal)
Bottom up processing
stimulus influences our perception (processing sensory information as it comes in )
Top down processing
Background knowledge influences perception (finding Waldo)
Gestalt Principles
Similarity, Pragnanz, Proximity, Continuity, Closure
items similar to one another grouped together
reality is often organized reduced to simplest form possible (Ex. Olympic rings)
objects that are close are grouped together
lines are seen as following the smoothest path
objects grouped together are seen as a whole
first layer light hits
transparent thick sheet of tissue (anterior 1/6th)
Anterior chamber
space filled with aqueous humor (maintain shape of eyeball)
hole made by iris (which determines eye color)
Bends light so it goes to back of eyeball
Ciliary body
Suspensory ligaments and ciliary muscle, secretes aqueous humor
Posterior chamber
Behind ciliary body, also filled with aqueous humor
Vitreous chamber
Filled with vitreous humor, a jellylike substance to provide pressure to eyeball
filled with photoreceptors
Part of retina rich in cones
completely covered in cones, no rods
pigmented black in humans, all light reflected, covered in blood vessels
white of the eye, thick fibrous tissue, covers posterior 5/6 of eyeball
What does visual sensation require?
Light -> neural impulse by photoreceptor
Visible light range
400 nm (violet) to 700 nm (red)
Path of neural sensation in brain
Light turns rod off -> turns on bipolar cell -> turns on retinal ganglion cell -> optic nerve -> brain
Phototransduction cascade
Light hits retinal in rhodopsin (photopsin in cones), causing it to change from cis to trans, so transducin breaks off, the alpha part binds to PDE, converting cGMP to regular GMP, closing cGMP gated Na channels, turning rod off
Which are more sensitive to light, rods or cones? Faster recovery time?
Rods are 1000x more sensitive to light, cones have faster recovery time
Right visual field goes to _____
left side of the brain
Feature detection
Ability to detect certain features of stimuli
Trichromatic theory of color vision
3 receptors for color perception
Parvocellular pathway
Detects form, good at spatial resolution, not temporal
Magnocellular pathway
Detects motion, good at temporal resolution, not spatial
Parallel processing
simultaneous processing of incoming stimuli
Hearing needs __________________________
pressurized sound wave and hair cells
Path of sound
Pinna (outer ear) --> auditory canal --> tympanic membrane, which vibrates malleus, incus and stapes, which pushes oval window, pushing fluid to round window, pushing fluid out, and moving hair cells
Inner ear
Cochlea and semicircular canals
Organ of corti
Contains upper and lower membranes, fluid causes movement of hair cells, hair bundles made of little filaments called kinocilium, connected by tiplinks, attached to gate of K+ channels. Displacement causes K+ to flow into cells along with Ca+, causing AP in spiral ganglion cell
Hearing range
20 (apex)-20000 (base) Hz
Cochlear implants
Restore hearing, Receiver goes to a stimulator which reaches the cochlea. Receiver receives info from a transmitter. Transmitter gets electrical info from the speech processor. Speech processor gets info from microphone. Sound -> microphone -> transmitter (outside the skull) sends info to the receiver (inside). Then it sends info to the stimulator, into the cochlea, and cochlea converts electrical impulse into neural impulse that goes to brain.
Upregulation/Downregulation in somatosensation
Adaptation: downregulation, Amplification: upregulation
movement of the body
Nociception, TRPV1 receptor, heat causes conformational change in the protein, sends signal to the brain
Types of fibers in somatosensation
A-beta (fast)- heavily myelinated (less resistance, high conductance)
A-delta (medium)- smaller, less myelin
C (slow)- unmyelinated, lingering sense of pain
Path of smell
Molecule binds to GPCR receptor in olfactory epithelial cells, send AP to olf. epithelium, fires bulb (glomerulus)--> synapse onto mitral/tufted cells --> brain
triggers innate response in other species, requires accessory olfactory bulb --> VNO (basal cells) --> glomerulus --> amygdala
Path of Gustation
Taste receptor cells depolarize --> ion channels --> AP
Taste receptor types
Sweet, umami, bitter: GPCR
Salty, sour: Ion channels
Types of Sleep
Beta (13-30 Hz)- awake/concentration, increased stress, anxiety
Alpha (8-13)- daydreaming, relaxation
Theta (7 Hz)- drowsiness, right after you fall asleep
Delta (0.5-3)- deep sleep, coma
Order of sleep cycle
N1 -> N2 -> N3 -> N2 -> REM (90 minutes)
theta waves, hallucinations, seeing things that are not there
deeper stage of sleep, more theta waves, sleep spindles and K complexes
Sleep spindles
Inhibit perceptions so we maintain tranquil sleep
K complexes
suppress cortical arousal to keep you asleep, help memory consolidation
slow wave sleep, delta waves, sleep-walking
memory consolidation, muscles paralyzed, combination of alpha, beta and desynchronous waves, active brain- paradoxical sleep
Circadian rhythms
Monitored by melatonin, produced in pineal gland, changes as people age
During REM, rapid eye movement, decreased PFC activity
Freud Dream Theory
Dreams represent our unconscious feelings/thoughts, manifest content (what happens), latent content (hidden meaning)
Sleep deprivation
More irritable, poor memory, susceptible to obesity, + risk of depression, 7-8 hours for adults,
Trouble falling/staying asleep
Sleep at random times
Sleep apnea
stop breathing while sleeping; central sleep apnea in brain, without obstruction
Cheyne-stokes breathing
period of oscillations, then flat
people relax, focus on breathing, more susceptible to suggestion, more alpha waves
Social influence theory
people do what's expected of them
train people to regulate attention and awareness; more alpha waves in normal meditation, more theta waves in deep meditation
lower body's basic functions, neural activity (alcohol), think more slowly, disrupt REM sleep
Induce sleep, reduce anxiety, depress CNS
most commonly prescribed suppressant, sleep aids, anti-anxiety, enhance brain's response to GABA, open GABA channels
Treat pain and anxiety, heroin and morphine, act at receptor sites for endorphins, can lead to euphoria, treatment is methadone (reduced high)
Stimulate neural activity, caffeine, meth, ecstasy, cocaine, treat with low levels of nicotine
inhibits adenosine receptors, withdrawal symptoms if deprived
releases so much dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine that it depletes your brain's supply
trigger release of dopamine, euphoria for up to 8 hours, highly addictive
cause hallucinations, altered perception, some hallucinogens are used for PTSD treatment
stimulant and hallucinogen, increases dopamine and serotonin and euphoria. Also stimulates the body's NS. Can damage neurons that produce serotonin, which has several functions including moderating mood, causes hallucinations and heightened sensations
interferes with serotonin, which causes people to experience hallucinations
Main active chemical is THC, which heightens sensitivity to sounds, tastes, smells.
Like alcohol, reduces inhibition, impairs motor and coordination skills. disrupts memory formation, stays in body for up to a week
Routes of drug entry
Oral- mouth, inhalation- breathing/smoking, injection- straight to vein, Transdermal- through skin, intramuscular- stuck in muscle
Reward pathway in brain
Brain released dopamine, which is produced in VTA --> amygdala--> nucleus accumbens--> PFC, hippocampus
need more of a drug to get the same effect out of it
Go through long period without drug, feel anxiety, depressed, but can be reversed
behavioral and psychological effects on a person
Cognitive behavioral therapy
Recognize problematic situations of addiction, develop positive patterns, coping strategies, monitor cravings
Motivational interviewing
Work with patient to find intrinsic motivation to change
Exogenous cues
explicitly shown, don't have to tell ourselves to look for them (bright colors)
require internal knowledge to understand the cues, intention to follow it
Inattentional blindness
Not aware of something in our visual field if our attention is directed away from it
Broadbent Early Selection theory
Information--> sensory register --> selective filter --> perceptual processing
Deutch & Deutch's Late Selection Theory
Information--> sensory register --> perceptual processing --> selective filter (filter after processing)
Treisman's Attenuation Theory
Instead of complete selective filter, we have an attenuator, doesn't completely eliminate input from one ear --> perceptual processing
Spotlight model of attention
Take information from 5 senses but don't pay attention to everything
Exposure to one stimulus affects response to another, but don't pay attention to everything
Resource model of attention
We have limited resources in our attention
Task similarity
the participant is more likely to be successful if the task involves different stimulus or response modalities
Information processing model
We get input from environment, process it, and output decisions
Iconic memory
fleeting visual cue (half a second)
Echoic memory
fleeting auditory cue
Working memory
what you're thinking about at the moment
Phonological loop
Where verbal information is processed
Central executive
Coordinates visual and verbal info, stores representation in episodic buffer for long term memory
Visuospatial Sketchpad
Stores visual and spatial information
Magic number
7+/-2 pieces of information can be held at a time
dual coding hypothesis
Easier to remember words with images than either one alone
method of loci
moving through a familiar place and in each place leaving a visual representation of topic to be remembered
long term memory is split into _________________________
Declarative and Implicit
Explicit memory
facts/events that you can describe, broken up into episodic (event-related) and semantic (words)
Implicit memory
May not articulate, procedural
Transferring sensory information into memory
Encoding strategies
1) Rote rehearsal - say same thing over and over
2) Chunking- group information into meaningful categories
3) Mnemonic devices
4) self-referencing- how does it relate to you
5) Spacing- spacing out study periods
Retrieval cues
Priming and context (environment you encode and take the test)
Types of recall
Free- no cues in recalling
Cued - some cues (pl in planet)
Recognition- best of 3 tests, say which one you heard
Source monitoring error
source of memory inaccurately attributed to specific recollected experience
Flashbulb memories
Highly vivid memories
Don't encode something well/ don't retrieve for a while, we can't at all anymore
Retroactive interference
new learning impairs old information (new license plate)
Proactive interference
Something you learned in the past impairs learning in the future
Korsakoff's Syndrome
lack of vitamin B1, thiamine, severe memory loss, confabulation
Piaget Stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor (0-2)- smelling, hearing, touch, object permanence (don't realize objects still exist if they can't see them)
Preoperational (2-7)- children engage in pretend play, very egocentric
Concrete operational (7-11)- learn conservation, empathy, test: can identify that short glass and tall glass contain same amount of water
Formal operational(12+)- reason abstract consequences, sophisticated moral reasoning takes place
Problem Solving
Trial and error, algorithm, heuristics (mental shortcut), intuition (instinct)- type 1 error: false positive, type 2: false negative
Availability Heuristic
Use examples that come to mind (who's been in more movies)
Representativeness Heuristic
Feminist bank teller
Belief perseverance
Ignore/rationalize discomforting facts
Framing effects
Based on how you present the question
Spreading activation
Ideas in head are connected together, pull related concepts
Mental quantity allowing you to learn from experience
Spearman's theory of general intelligence
People who score well on reading tend to also score well in math
G factor
factor underlying consistent abilities in general intelligence
Theory of 3 intelligences
Analytic, creative, practical intelligences
Fluid intelligence
ability to reason quickly and abstractly
Crystallized intelligence
Accumulated knowledge and verbal skills
Gardner's idea of 8 intelligences
differentiates intelligenceinto different modalities
Galton's idea of hereditary genius
Human ability is hereditary
Binet's idea of mental age
How a child compares to average intellectual performance at that age
Behaviorist Language theory
Language is just conditioned behavior, empiricist
Nativist language theory (Chomsky)
Language must be innate, all people have language acquisition device
Materialist language theory
Observe what happens in the brain when people think/speak/write
thought determines language completely
Piaget's theory of language
Children think a certain way, use language to describe those thoughts
Vygotsky (interactionist approach)
Language and thought are independent, converge through development
Weak hypothesis of Linguistic Determinism
Language influences thought
Strong hypothesis of Linguistic Determinism (Sapir-Whorfian)
speakers of different languages utilize different cognitive processes that influence how they think, people understand world through language, language determines how we experience the world
Critical period
When child is most likely to learn a language (birth to age 9)
Learning theory (Skinner)
language is a form of behavior and is learned through operant conditioning, learned through reinforcement
Linguistic relativity hypothesis
Cognition and perception determined by language that one speaks
Conduction aphasia
Damage to arcuate fasciculus, ability to conduct between listening and speaking is disrupted
Inability to write
Inability to name things
Limbic System components
Hippocampus, hypothalamus, amygdala, thalamus
Sensory relay station for all senses except smell
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
Bilateral destruction of the amygdala, can result in hyperorality, hypersexuality, disinhibited behavior
Regulates autonomic NS, controls endocrine system
Role of cerebral cortex in emotions
L side favored for happy, negative emotions on left side
Ekman's 6 universal emotions
Happiness, sadness, disgust, fear, anger, surprise
James-Lange theory
Emotion due to perception of physiological responses
Physiological response (arousal)and emotion occur simultaneously
Physiological and cognitive responses simultaneously form emotion, arousal and interpretation of arousal leads to aggressive emotion
Lazarus theory
Experience of emotion depends on how situation is labelled (cognitive --> emotion + physiological)
strain experienced when equilibrium is disrupted: stressor followed by stress reaction
Appraisal theory of stress
Stress arises from our cognitive interpretation of events
primary appraisal
Evaluate for potential threat (irrelevant, benign, stressful)
Secondary appraisal
If primary is negative, assess capability of dealing with stressor
Categories of stressors
Significant life changes, catastrophic events, daily hassles, ambient stressors
Reticular activating system
Structures in midbrain composed of nerve fibers, controlling arousal and alertness levels
General adaptation syndrome
1) Alarm Phase
2) Resistance
3) Exhaustion
Decrease in tone of skeletal muscle
Increased muscle stretch reflex
Rhythmic contraction of antagonist muscle
Extensor Plantar Response (Babinski)
Scrape hard object along bottom of foot- normal response is flexor
Lesion studies
Tissue removal, radiofrequency lesions (destroy tissue by inserting wire, delivering current), neurochemical, cortical cooling (cool down neurons until they stop firing)
better resolution than EEG
PET Scan
Activity measure by looking at glucose levels
See which structures are active using blood flow
Evolutionary theory of motivation
instinctual motivation
Drive Reduction theory
Drive reduces need, which is deprivation of resources needed to survive
Optimum Arousal Theory
People want to be completely aroused
Cognitive motivation
Thought processes drive behavior
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
we want to satisfy needs in a certain order
1) Physiological- bottom, survival
2) Safety- employment, health, resources
3) Love- need to belong
4) self-esteem- feel confident, sense of achievement
5) self- actualization- reaching maximum potential
Incentive Theory
Reward presented after an action, positive reinforcement done through continuous positive stimulation
ABC Model of Attitude
Affective, behavioral, cognitive components: I love yoga (emotional) because it helps me relax (C), and I will go to class every day (B)
Theory of planned behavior
Consider implications of intentions before we behave
Attitude to behavior process model
an event triggers our attitude
Prototype willingness model
behavior is a function of past behavior, attitudes, subjective norms, our intentions, our willingness to engage in a specific type of behavior, prototypes/models
Elaboration Likelihood model of persuasion
central processing- quality of arguments of presenter
Peripheral- superficial cues
Example of role playing?
Stanford (Zimbardo's) prison experiment
Cognitive dissonance theory
feeling of discomfort, reduced by:
Modifying cognitions, trivialize, add, deny
Inferring cause of attitude, behavior
1) consistency- does person usually behave in this way
2) distinctiveness- does person behave differently in different situations
3)consensus- do others behave similarly in the same situation
Psychoanalytic theory
person shaped by unconscious thoughts, feelings, past memories
What motivates human behavior according to Freud?
Libido and death instinct
Psychoanalytic theory
personality shaped by unconscious thoughts, feelings, past memories
Projecting feelings of inadequacy onto another
Reaction formation
someone says/does the opposite of what they actually want/feel
one regresses to position of child in problematic situations
defense mechanism- unwarranted impulses are transformed into something less harmful
unconscious part of conscious mind, demands instant gratification
involved in thoughts, perceptions, long-term gratification
Moral conscience
Humanistic theory
People are seen as inherently good
Actualizing tendency (self-actualization)
innate drive to maintain/enhance one's self
Biological Theory of Personality
Important components of personality are inherited
Extroversion level
Extroverts are more easily aroused
Social potency
Degree to which person assumes leadership roles in social situations
tendency to follow authority tends to be common in twins
Behaviorist Theory
Personality is the result of learned behaviors based on person's environment- it's deterministic
Personality trait
Stable disposition toward a certain behavior
Surface traits
Evident from person's behavior
Source traits
Underlying human personality
Cardinal traits
characteristics that direct most of person's activities
16 Personality Factor
16 essential personality traits that represent basicd imensions of personality
Eynseck's theory of personality
3 major dimensions of personality: extroversion, neuroticism (emotional stability), psychoticism (degree to which reality is distorted)
5 factor model
OCEAN: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism
Social Cognitive Theory
Emphasizes change in interactions between people and their environment
Bobo Doll Experiment
Violence was projected onto the bobo doll when kids observed violent behavior
Cluster A
Cluster B
Intense emotional/relationship problems
Cluster C
Informative Influence
look to group for guidance when you don't know what to do, ask what to do (others more knowledgeable)
Normative influence
Even if you know what's right, do what group does to avoid social rejection
Group polarization
group decision-making amplifies the original opinion of the group members
Harmony among group members is more important that carefully analyzing problem at hand
Breakdown of social bonds between individual and society
Identification (complicance)
act a certain way to be like someone famous
idea has been integrated into our own values
Just world phenomenon
good things happen to good peopel
Self-serving bias
We could never perform heinous acts
Fundamental Attribution error
others act a certain way based on personality flaws, attribute to character
Factors that influence Obedience/Conformity
Group size, unanimity, group status, group cohesion, observed behavior, public response, internal factors
Diffusion of Responsibility Theory
When individuals are in the presence of others, they feel less personal responsibility
Social facilitation
dominant response would be shown, presence of others will allow you to perform well
how to interact with others, process by which people learn the attitudes, behaviors and values expected by their culture, community
Agents of socialization
Family, school, peers, mass media
Types of norms
Folkways (manners to follow), mores (norms based on some value/belief), laws (formal consequences), taboo (wrong in any circumstance)
Norm is violated
Theory of differential association
Deviance is a learned behavior from continuous exposure to others that violate norms/laws
Labeling theory
behavior is deviant if people have judged the behavior as deviant
Strain Theory
Person blocked from attaining a culturally accepted goal, may turn to deviance, pushed to certain goals, but don't have legitimate path to success
Collective behavior
Time-limited, short social interactions
Types of collective behavior
Fad, mass hysteria, riots
Nonassociative learning
organism is repeatedly exposed to one type of stimulus (habituation, sensitization)
Successively reinforce behaviors that approximate target behavior
Every 4 cars, then 5 cars, etc.
Every 2 weeks, 3 weeks, then 1 week
Insight learning
Solve problem using past skills
Elaboration Likelihood model
people will be influenced by the content of the speech vs more superficial features
Characteristics for Persuasion
1) Message characteristics: message itself
2) Source: level of expertise
3) Target: characteristics of listener
Reciprocal Determinism
Interaction between person's behaviors, personal factors and environment
Tyranny of choice
too many choices can negatively impact our cognition and behavior
Ego depletion
self-control is a limited resource, can get used up
Self concept
How someone views themselves
Existential self
awareness of being separate, distinct from others, awareness that self is constant throughout life
Categorical self
Even though we're separate, we exist in the world with others
Humanistic theory components
Self-image, self-esteem, ideal self
Social comparison
Compare with others to maintain self-esteem
Freud Psychosexual Development Stages
1) Oral (0-1)
2) Anal (1-2)
3) Phallic(3-6)
Erikson's Psychosocial Development
Crisis based
1) Trust and mistrust (1)
2) autonomy vs. shame/doubt (2)
3) initiative vs. guilt (3-5)
4) . industry vs. inferiority(6-12)
5)identity vs. role confusion (12-18)
6)intimacy vs. isolation (18-40)
7)Generativity vs Stagnation(40-65)
8) Integrity vs despair (65+)
Vygotsky sociocultural development
Based on social interactions' impact of cognition
1) Cooperative dialogue from a more knowledgeable other
2)Zone of proximal development-most sensitive instruction can be given
3)Language- means by which adults inform children
4 Elementary functions (Vygotsky)
Attention, sensation, perception, memory
Kohlberg Moral Development
Looked at how moral developed, way moral reasoning changes as people grow
Heinz Dilemma
Broke into chemist's house because he couldn't afford the drug
Stages of Kohlberg moral development
1) Preconventional- obedience vs punishment, individualism vs exchange, different people have different viewpoints
2) Conventional- good boy and good girl, law and order- maintain social order, emphasis on conformity
3)Post-conventional- social contract (laws work against certain people) and universal ethics principle (people develop own set of moral guidelines)
Reference Groups
groups which people refer to when evaluating themselves
Social behaviorism
Mead, mind and self emerge from interaction with others
Mead 3 stages
1) Preparatory Stage- imitation
2) Play Stage- more away of social relationships, pretend role play
3)Game stage - generalized other, people can take on multiple role
I vs. Me
Me= how individual believes the generalized other perceives it (social self)
I- response of the individual to the attitudes of others
Looking glass self
person's sense of self develops from interpersonal interactions with others, what we imagine the opinions of others to be
Optimism Bias
Bad things happen to others, not us
Collectivist culture
success and failure attributed to external factors
authoritarian personality
Obedient to superiors, but oppressive toward inferior people
Frustration Aggression Hypothesis
Someone getting frustrated can lead to prejudice
Hypothesis of Relative Deprivation
Upsurge of prejudice when people are deprived of something they feel entitled to
Social Circles
1st- self
2nd- family
3rd- society
Mere exposure effect
Repeated exposure to novel people/objects increases our liking for them
Similarity Bias
Implies we will not befriend people different from us
Projection Bias
Assume others share same beliefs we do
When does stranger anxiety develop?
8 months old
Types of attachment
Secure, insecure, avoidant
Aggression comes from ________
Biology, psychological factors, sociocultural factors
Role strain
Tension within one status when you can't carry out all the obligations
Role conflict
conflict between 2 statuses
Roles of dramaturgy
Front stage- people in social setting
Backstage- be yourself, away from others
process by which organizations become increasingly governed by laws and policy
5 Characteristics of an ideal Bureaucracy
1) Division of labor
2)Hierarchy of organization
3) Written rules and regulations
4) Impersonality
5) Employment based on technical qualifications
Peter principle
every employee in hierarchy keeps getting promoted until they reach the level of incompetence
Attributing human characteristics to animals
how institutions that make up society adapt to keep society stable and functioning
Conflict Theory
society is made of institutions that benefit powerful, create inequalities
dominant religious organization that include most members of society
weakening of social and political power of religious organizations
Social constructionism
People actively shape their reality through social interactions
Gender Schema theory
cognitions that affect the male identity
3 divisions in world systems theory
Core, periphery, semiperiphery
Skeptical perspective of globalization
considers it being regionalized instead of globalized
Mass Society theory
Skepticism about groups, only form for people seeking refuge from main society
Resource Mobilization
Looks at factors that hinder/help social movements, like access to resources
Rational Choice theory
Pros/cons of different courses of action
Conflict perspective of media
How media portrays and reflects and exacerbates division
Interactionist perspective of media
how interactions shape day to day behavior