51 terms

BJU Science Life Science - Chapter 11

BJU Life Science - Chapter 11
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Terms in this set (...)

vascular tissue
conducts water and other materials in some plants; most familiar are xylem and phloem
nonvascular plants
lack vascular tissue and transport water and other materials by using diffusion, produce spores (not seeds)
rhizoids
root-like structures of a typical moss; anchor the plant in the soil and absorb water
alternation of generations
plants with two distinct stages in their life cycle; each stage has its own distinct form of reproduction
seedless vascular plants
require water to transport spores involved in sexual reproduction (ferns, horsetails, liverworts)
seed plants
do not require on water to transport seeds involved in sexual reproduction
angiosperms
largest group of seed plants, seeds are fully covered; most flowering plants; produce fruit and seeds
gymnosperms
group of seed plants whose seeds are not covered; conifers, pines, redwoods...
sepal
leaf-like structures at the base of a flower; protects the flower as it developes
petals
the largest and most colorful part of a flower; attracts pollinators to the flower
stamen
part of the male reproductive part of a flower; supports the anther which holds the pollen
pollen
has the male gamete of the flower
pistil
the female reproductive part of a flower
ovary
area at the bottom of the pistil; location of the ovules; becomes swollen when fertilized
stigma
the sticky, top portion of the style; site where the pollen attaches
fruit
A mature ovary with seed(s) inside.
ovules
contains the eggs inside the ovary of the pistil
seed
the mature ovule once fertilization occurs; consists of the embryo, the stored food, and a seed coat
cotyledon
the area of a seed containing the stored food
rhizome
an underground stem that grows horizontally; seen in ferns
fronds
a fern leaf
sori
a structure on the underside of a fern frond that produces spores.
spores
a cell with a hard protective covering that, under favorable conditions can produce a new organism
sporophyte
the stage in an alternation of generations life cycle that produces diploid spores to form the gametophyte generation; stage seen most often in ferns
gametophyte
the stage in an alternation of generations life cycle that produces the haploid gametes to form the sporophyte generation
mosses, liverworts hornworts
Three examples of nonvascular plants
anthers
the structure on a plant's stamen in which pollen is produced
style
a portion of a flower pistil above the ovary and below the stigma
annual plant
a plant species that grows from a seed, produces more seeds, and dies during one growing season (or within one year)
perennial plant
a plant species that lives for more than two years, usually many years
diploid
having two of each type of chromosome in the cells of an organism; human diploid number is 46
gametes
a haploid cell used in sexual reproduction that contains only one of each type of chromosome found in an organism; an egg or sperm
germination
the beginning of growth for a plant; needs proper amount of moisture, temperature, oxygen
plantlets
a small, complete plant formed by asexual reproduction
haploid
having only one of each chromosome normally found in the cells of a organism, such as in gametes; human haploid number is 23;
chloroplast
an organelle in plants that contains chlorophyll and other pigments; the organelle in which photosynthesis occurs
xylem and phloem
Two parts of vascular plants
horsetails
example of a seedless vascular plant; used as abrasive because of its silica in cell walls
biennial plant
a plant species that sprouts and grows in once growing season, produces flowers and seeds the next growing season, and then dies (ex: foxglove, sweet william)
monocots
a flowering plant that has one cotyledon and that usually has parallel venation and flower parts in threes or sixes
dicots
a flowering plant that has two cotyledons and that usually has pinnate or palmate venation and flower parts in fours, fives, or multiples of these
root hairs
a tiny extension of epidermal cells on the roots of plants that aids in absorbing water
3-parts of the seed
embryonic plant, cotyledons, seed coat
bryophytes
a nonvascular sprore forming plant in the phylum Bryophyta (a moss)
nectar
a sugary liquid produced by glands in some flowers that function to attract certain pollinators
ways of pollination
trap flowers, mammals, insects, wind
traits used to classify plants
whether they produce seeds and whether the plant has vascular tissue,
sexual reproduction in plants
results in genetic variation; haploid cells (gametes) transfer and receive chromosomes
pollination
transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma; aided by birds and insects and even wind; anther, stigma, and pollen are required
asexual reproduction in plants
does not result in genetic variation; examples include runners and plantlets, root sprouts, and leaf cuttings; many seedless crops are produced asexually
moss stalk and capsule
produced by the gametophyte generation; then these produce haploid spores

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