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where can one fine smooth muscle?
in walls of hollow visceral structures (such as digestive tract, blood vessels, and ureters)
attachment to the bone that remains relatively stationary or fixed when movement at the joint occurs
(parts of a skeletal muscle:) origin
the point of attachment to the bone that moves when a muscle contracts
(parts of the skeletal muscle:) insertion
how are muscles attached to bones?
by tendons (cords of fibrous connective tissue; sometimes closed in tendon sheaths)
what is the name of the sac that is located between some tendons and underlying bones?
bursae (synovial lined sac)
it explains the mechanism of contraction; thick and thin myofilaments slide past each other as a muscle contracts
the sliding filament model
how do muscles produce movement?
by pulling on bones as a muscle contracts; (insertion bone is pulled closer to origin bone and movement occurs at the joint between the origin and the insertion)
what produces the most amount of heat required to maintain normal body temp?
contraction of muscle fibers
reduced strength or muscle
contraction; not enough rest after repeated muscle stimulation; muscle burning due to inadequate oxygen producing lactic acid; oxygen debt; depleted cellular ATP
term used to describe the metabolic effort required to burn excess lactic acid that may accumulate during prolonged periods of exercise
what other body systems are important to muscle functioning?
respiratory, circulatory, nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems
name some exs of pathological conditions in other body organ systems that can dramatically affect movement?
multiple sclerosis, brain hemorrhage, and spinal cord injury
what is the point of contact between a nerve ending and the muscle fiber it innervates?
a neuromuscular junction
a muscle will contract only if an applied stimulus reaches a minimal level of intensity...this is called?
after the threshold stimulus, a muscle fiber will contract completely...this is referred to as?
all or none
different motor units responding to different threshold stimuli permit a muscle as a whole to execute contractions of....
individual muscle fibers always respond in an All or None mode....T or F?
true: (fibers do, the muscle as a whole does not)
quick, jerky responses to a stimulus; they are laboratory phenomena and do not play a significant role in normal muscular activity?
sustained and steady muscular contractions caused by a series of stimuli bombarding a muscle in rapid succession
contraction of a muscle that produces movement of a joint; the muscle changes length, causing the insertion end of the muscle to move relative to the point of origin
muscle contractions that do not produce movement; the muscle as a whole does not shorten; tension in the muscle increases
what improves muscle tone and posture, results in more efficient heart and lung functioning and reduces fatigue?
contraction of muscles against heavy resistance is; increase in number of myofilaments in each muscle fiber; total mass of muscle increases; does not increase the # of fibers
what increases a muscle's ability to sustain moderate exercise over a long period; allows more efficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients to a muscle via increased blood flow; does not result in hypertrophy?
endurance training (aerobic training)
what are the abdominal muscles?
rectus abdominus, external oblique, internal oblique, and transverse abdominis
what muscle flexes the lower leg?
hamstring muscles (semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and biceps femoris)
what muscle extends the lower leg?>
the quadriceps femoris group (rectus femoris and vastus muscles)
hand positions that result from rotation of the forearm; hand position with the palm turned to the anterior position
injury from overexertion or trauma; involves stretching or tearing of muscle fibers; accompanied by myalgia, myositis and fibromyositis
strain ( called a sprain when injury is near a joint and involves ligament damage)
what injuries result from severe muscle trauma and may release cell contents that ultimately cause kidney failure?
most common muscular dystrophy characterized by rapid progression of weakness and atrophy; it is x linked affecting mostly boys?
duchenne (pseudohypertrophic) muscular dystrophy
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