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Physics Definitions J2 Blocks
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Terms in this set (47)
Systematic error
An error that occurs according to some fixed rule or pattern such that they yield a consitent over- or under-estimation of the true value of the measured quantity
Random error
An error that occurs without a fixed pattern such that a set of measurements done under the same conditions have an equally likely chance of being greater or less than the true value
Accuracy
How closely a measured value agrees with the 'true' value
Precision
How closely individual measurements agree with each other without reference to any 'true' value
Uncertainty
An estimate of systematic and/or random errors inherent in the measurement or calculation
Velocity
The rate of change of displacement of a body
Mass
The measure of a body's resistance to change in state of motion
Momentum
The product of a body's mass and velocity
Force
Rate of change in momentum of an object produced by another object
Impulse
The product of the force on a body and the time of impact of force
Hooke's Law
Extension or compression in a material is directly proportional to the applied force, provided that the limit of proportionality is not exceeded
Upthrust
Upward force exerted by a fluid on a submerged or floating object due to a difference in pressure between the upper and lower surfaces of the object
Archimedes' Principle
For an object immersed in a fluid, the magnitude of the upthrust is equal to the weight of fluid displaced
Moment of a force
Product of the force and the perpendicular distance of the force from pivot
Couple
A pair of equal in magnitude but opposite in direction forces whose lines of action do not coincide
Torque of a couple
Product of one of the forces and the perpendicular distance between the forces
Work done
Product of the force on a body and the displacement in the direction of the force
Principle of conservation of energy
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but can be transformed from one form to another
Efficiency
Ratio of useful energy output to the energy input
Power
Rate at which work is done
Angular displacement
Angle of rotation of a body about an axis in a specific direction from a reference point
Angular velocity
Rate of change in angular displacement of a body
Newton's law of universal gravitation and gravitational force
Every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a gravitational force that is directly proportional to the product of the masses of the particles and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
Gravitational field
A region of space in which a mass experiences a force due to the presence of another mass
Gravitational field strength
At any point in a gravitational field, it is the gravitational force per unit mass acting on a test mass at that point
Simple harmonic motion
For an oscillator in simple harmonic motion, acceleration is proportional to displacement from equilibrium position and is always directed towards the equilibrium position
Thermal equilibrium
Situation in which there is no net exchange of energy when two objects are placed in thermal contact
Specific heat capacity
Quantity of heat required to produce a unit change in temperature per unit mass of that substance
Specific latent heat of fusion
Amount of heat required per unit mass to change a substance from solid to liquid state without a change in temperature
Specific latent heat of vapourisation
Amount of heat required per unit mass to change a substance from liquid to vapour state without any change in temperature
First law of thermodynamics
In a closed system, the increase in internal energy is equal to the heat supplied to the system and the work done on the system
Wave
A propagation of a disturbance which transfers energy from one point to another without the physical transfer of matter
Wavefront
A locus or imaginary line joining all the points of the wave that have the same phase
Ray
A line drawn in the direction of the wave motion which is used to indicate the path taken by the wave
Intensity
The energy delivered per unit area per unit time, normal to the area
Principle of superposition
When two waves meet, the resultant displacement is the vector sum of the displacements due to each individual wave
Coherence
Occurs when two sources have a constant phase difference
Stationary waves
Results from the superposition of two waves of equal amplitude and frequency travelling with the same speed but in opposite directions
Diffraction
The spreading of waves when they pass trhough an aperture or around an obstacle
Rayleigh's criterion
Two sources are just resolved if the central maxima of one diffraction pattern falls on the first minimum of the diffreaction pattern of the other
Electric current
Rate of flow of charged particles
Electric charge
The charge which flows past a point in time t is the product of current and time, if current is steady
Electric potential difference
Electrical energy converted to other forms of energy, per unit charge passing through device
Electromotive force
Electrical energy, converted from other forms of energy per unit charge, transferred by the source in driving unit charge round a complete circuit
Resistance
Ratio of potential difference across the conductor to the current flowing through it
Ohm's law
Current through a metallic conductor is proportional to the potential difference across its ends under constant physical conditions
Resistivity
Measure of how strongly a material opposes electric current
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