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A Level History AQA: Tsarist Russia: Russification Ch.4
Terms in this set (68)
What was Russification and what was its purpose?
From the time of Alexander II, it was decided that political loyalty would be best preserved by engaging in a policy of Russification, based on making the Russian language and religion dominant focus of the cultural life of the whole Patchwork Empire
What is chauvinism?
exaggerated belief in national superiority and glory)
which areas did chavinisim erupt protest?
brought protests from nationalities from as far apart as Latvia band Georgia and gave a great boost to local nationalist and separatist movements.
how could you describe russia's ethnicities?
Tsarist Russia was a multinational empire inhabited by over 100 different ethnic groups.
Which ethnicities made up 2/3 of the Russian population?
Although the Slavs in Russia, Ukraine and Belorussia comprised two thirds of the population, the remaining petioles were a mixture of many different nationalities, languages, religions and cultural traditions
List the ethnicities in Northern European Russia?
In addition to a host of smaller national groups, Finns, Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians lived In the north of European Russia, with distinctive national cultures
Explain which ethnicities saw themselves each as distinctive nations?
To the west was the home of the Catholic Poles and many of the Empire's Jews, while to the south and south west were the Ukrainians, who considered themselves a distinctive nation, as did a million Romanians living in Bessarabia, and Georgians and Azerbaijanis in the Caucasus
what altered the msuslim population in russia by 1900?
Added to this, continual imperial expansion in Asia in the second half of the nineteenth century helped increase the Muslim population to ten million by 1900
why was autocracy difficult with so many ethnicities?
This diverse Empire posed a continual challenge fort eh tsarist autocracy, particularly as the development pf national ideology in the nineteenth century provoked ethnic groups including the Russian Slavs to assert their distinctive identities.
What is national ideology?
National ideology was a belief in the strength of one's own country, language and traditions, this became a powerful force in Europe after the defeat of Napoleon who had tried to extend French influence across the continent.
When did Poland bring nationalist rebellion?
Polish nationalism had surfaced and brought rebellion in 1830
How did Finland revolt against nationalism in the 1840s?
In the 1840s, a Finnish language pressure group was set up and local language newspapers were founded in the Baltic regions
How did A.II react to a further Finish revolt in 1863?
He reacted swiftly and strongly when a further Polish rebellion broke out in 1863,sending his own brother, Viceroy Duke Konstantin to deal with the rebelsAlexander II did not engage in systematic persecution of racial minorities, and he also used concessions as a means of keeping control
Describe the increase in revolt from Finland between the 1840s- 1863?
More than 200,000 Poles had joined in creating an underground National government from Poland, • And they waged to form a guerrilla warfare against their Imperial masters, although they were soundly crushed after fierce fighting in 1864
what is guerrilla warfare?
Guerrilla warfare is a form of fighting conducted by groups of soldiers or armed civilians using methods such as ambushes, sabotage and raids rather than fighting conventionally
what are concessions?
Concessions are granting requests in response to demands
give an example of concessions being granted by A.II?
For example, through decrees in 1864 and 1875, the Latvians and Estonians were allowed to revert to Lutheranism, where previously Orthodoxy had been demanded• Furthermore he allowed the Finns to have their own diet ( parliament_) and tried to maintain good relations with the Finnish people
how did A.II's reactionary phase alter the peace of the ukranian minority?
However the period of increased reaction towards the end of his reign sae growing intolerance of national differences o the part of the Tsars ministers and administrators, who were keen to reinforce the tsarist regime• This led, for example to a prohibition on the use of the Ukrainian language in publications or performances I 1876
who was it that installed a policy of cultural russification on A.III?
Alexander III and his ministers particularly Podedenostsev, engages in a policy of ' cultural Russification'
what did cultural russification intend for the country?
This sought to merge all the Tsar's subjects into a single nation with a feeling of shared identity.
Where was non russian culture particularly repremended under A.III?
The destruction of non-Russian national cultures were particularly marked in Poland and Finland
Explain Russification in Finland?
In Finland, the diet ( parliament) was reorganised in 1892 in order to weaken its political influence, the use of the Russian language was increasingly demanded, the independent postal service was abolishes and Russian coinage replaced the local currency
Explain Russification in Poland?
In Poland , the Polish National Bank was closed in 1885, and in schools and universities the teaching of all subjects excerpt the Polish language and religion had to be In Russian• Even Polish literature had to be studied in a Russian translation • The administration of Poland was also changed to curb any independence
Explain Russification for the Baltic Germans?
The loyal Baltic Germans, who had enjoyed the special protection of Alexander III's predecessors, also found themselves the subjects of particularly aggressive Russification• Between 1885 and 1889, measures were introduced to enforce the use of Russian in all state offices, elementary and secondary schools, the police force, and judicial system• Even the German University of Dorpar was ' Russified' and became Iurev University ( 1889-1893)
Which provinces didi Russification extend to under A.III?
Russification was extended to other provinces, such as Belorussia, Georgia and the Ukraine
How was military service forced upon other provinces?
Military service arrangements were extended into areas previously exempt, and conscripts from national areas were dispersed to prevent national groupings developing in the army, where businesses was entirely conducted un Russian
How was orthodoxy used for russification?
Adherence to the Orthodox church was encouraged everywhere, with laws benefitting those of Orthodox faith• In the Baltic region, 37,000 Lutherans converted to Orthodoxy in order to take advantage of the special measures of support
How was the church used to enforce russification in Poland?
In Poland, Catholic monasteries were closed down, the influence of Catholic priests was curbed, and incentives were provided for non-Catholics to settle in this area
How was the churhch used to enforce russification in Asia?
In Asia, the All Russian Orthodox Missionary society worked to covert ' heathens and Muslims' and this included forced mass baptisms
What are heathens?
Heathens were non-believers, the Orthodox Church at this time might also have used the term to denote those of other faiths
How was orthodoxy enforced on people after 1883?
From 1883, members of non-Orthodox Churches were not allowed to build new places of worship , wear religious dress except within their meeting place, or spread ant religious propaganda• Any attempt to convert a member of the Orthodox Church to another faith was made punishable by exile to Siberia
describe the disturbances that occurred as a result of russification in 1888?
In June 1888, the Department of Police estimated 332 cases of mass disturbance in 61 of Russia 's 92 provinces and districts, • This included 43 disturbances in 9 of the 12 central provinces
what did A.iii do when disturbances agaisnt russification occurred?
in 51 of the 332 disturbances. The military was employed
how did people from the higher classes react to russification?
As well as popular disturbances, Russification caused particular resentment among the more educated and wealthy Finns, Poles and Baltic Germans in the west of the Empire, • Here, national groups constantly petitioned the Tsars for more liberties, and the secret publication of local language books continued
What was the means behind any supporters of russification?
Supporters of Russification genuinely believed they were acting for the greater good of Russia• They believed it was necessary to ' unite' the country in order to improve its administration, to allow for modernisation, and to reassert Russian strength
how does the historian walter moss interpret the reactions to russification?
Although in retrospect Russification may seem foolish and counterproductive, there were many factors nudging the government in the direction it took, primarily the desire to maintain a strong unified Russia
which countries strength by 1870 was impressive to russia?
Among the foreign powers, Germany's growing strength after 1870 most impressed its neighbours
How id the growing strength of germany influence poland?
In minority areas, such as its Polish lands, it imposed Germinisation by such measures as demanding the use of German in administration and schools
Describe how russifiation was part of russia's coutner reform mentality?
Russification was part pf the counter reform mentality, a reaction to the growing forces threatening autocracy and the Empire's political stability
how does historian peter waldron interpret russification's success?
writes that Russification ' failed to achieve its ends' and ' intensified national feeling among the non-Russian of the Empire'• Furthermore, it drove some of the wealthier citizens to emigrate and persuaded others, who might otherwise have proved loyal, to join political opposition groups
which race had suffered the most from intense nationalisation?
The racial group had suffered the most from this intense nationalism was the Jews
how many jews were there in the russian empire?
There were around 5 million Jews within the Russian empire
where had jews been confined to since 1700s?
since 1736 most had been confined to an area of western Russia known as the Pale of Settlement
What is th Pale of Settement?
This refers to a region in the south and west part of European Russia, created in 1791, which included much of present day- Lithuania, Belarus, Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and parts of western Russia• A number of cities within the Pale were excluded, however, while a limited number of categories of Jews were allowed to live outside the Pale
How did anti semitisim exist during alexander II's reign?
During Alexander II's reign, anti- Semitism, had existed among the poorer elements in society who not only hated Jews because of the teachings of the Orthodox church but also resented their money lending and personal riches, • Nevertheless, alexander II had allowed the wealthier Jews to settle elsewhere until the polish revolt frightened him into withdrawing his concessions and reducing participation of Jews in town government, • This action encouraged the growth of anti-Semitism
how was ant semtiism encouraged to alexander III?
It was further encouraged in the reign go alexander III by ministers such as Pobedenostsev, who used inflammatory slogans such as ' Beat the Yids- Save Russia' and suggested that ' one third should emigrate, one third die and one third assimilate ( convert) '• Alexander III was himself anti Semitics, largely on religious grounds
What quote can be used as evidence to prove that Alexander III was anti semitic?
He wrote in the margin of a document urging him to reduce Jewish persectiuuton ' but we must never forget that the Jews have crucified our Master and have shed his precious blood'
What was the political anti semititic feeling?
The right wing Russian press had helped encourage the belief that Jews had orchestrated alexander II's assassination, and there was real fear of Jewish involvement in the growing opposition movements
when did jewish pogroms occur during alexaneri III's reign?
Why did the Pale of settlement make jewish progrms eay to create?
The Jewish concentration in the areas of the Pale made them easy targets for the anti-Jewish pogroms that broke out In April 1881, in Yelizavetgrad in the Ukraine
why did the jewish progorms begin?
They may have started because of some business competition, involving Jews, for lucrative railway contracts, but it is regarded as highly probably that they were encouraged by the Okrana using the link to Tsar alexander II's assassination as an excuse to stir up trouble
How did the governing authorities react to the pogroms?
They were slow to act and the ' Holy League' organisation, which was supported by Pobedenostsev, helped to coordinate the early attacks , although this was banned in 1882
Where did the riots from the jewish pogroms spread to?
From Yelizavertgrad, the riots spread to other Ukrainian towns such as Kiev and Odessa, and beyond to Warsaw and Nizhny Novgorod, causing many Jews to flee across the border into Western Europe
to what extent were jewish cities affected by the pogroms?
Around 16 major cities were affected, with Jewish property burnt, shops and businesses destroyed and many incidences of rape and murder• The main outbreaks continued into 1884, but there were still sporadic pogroms after his , as in in Odessa in 1886
why did a decree in 1882 continue to make life worse for jews?
A separate decreed of 1882 also decreased the number of Jewish doctors permitted in the Russian army because doctors possessed the rights of army officers, a privilege otherwise unattainable for Jews• These laws were supposedly temporary but were, in practice, constantly revised and tightened
from when till when was there direct anti semitic legislation?
what anti semitic legislation occurred in 1882?
The governor general of st Petersburg orders 14 Jewish apothecaries to shut down their businesses
what anti semitic legislation occurred in 1886?
1886, Jews engaged in the sale of alcohol can only do so from their own homes or personal property
what anti semitic legislation occurred in 1887?
Jews who have graduated from a university outside Russia no longer possess the right to reside outside the Peele by virtue of their qualifications, The number of Jews admitted to schools and universities is regulated by quotas, ten per cent within the Pale, five per cent outside the Pale, and three per cent in the partials ( Moscow, St Petersburg and Kiev)
what anti semitic legislation occurred in 1889?
Jews need a special permit from the Minister of Justice to be elected to the Bar ( the legal professional body)• Any Jewish lawyer who chose to become a barrister needs the express consent of the Minister of Justice
what anti semitic legislation occurred in 1892?
Jews are banned from participation in local elections and prohibited from the right to be elected to town dumas, • The mining industry in Turkestan is closed to Jews
what anti semitic legislation occurred in 1893?
It is illegal for Jews to adopt a Christian name
what did many jews decide to do after the pogroms?
Following the pogroms, many Jews left the country
where were some jews expelled out of the country from?
Some went of their own free will but others were forcibly expelled, for example from Kiev in 1886
when did jews begin to be deported out the country?
From 1890 foreign Jews began to be deported from Russia along with around Russian Jews who had settled outside the Pale.
give an example of jews being deported from russia?
In the winter of 1891-1892, around 10,000 Jewish artisans were expelled from Moscow where they had legally settled during the reign of alexander II
what event triggered more jews being expelled out of russia?
More expulsions followed when the Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich, Alexander III's brother, was made Governor-General in 1892• He forced around 20,000 Jews from the city during the Passover and closed down a newly built synagogue
how did jews that remained in russia react to the expulsions?
The effect of such policies among the Jews that remained un Russia was to drive a disproportionate number of them towards revolutionary groups, and in particular Marxist social organisations
True or false Kushites would have been unable to trade for goods if they did not have the items to export
Muckrakers primarily expressed their concerns through which media?
they nominated a proslavery southerner for the presidency and their platform that has laws in it that strengthens slavery to prevent another John Brown from happening
"The success of American soldier during World War I was largely credited to his leadership, and he returned to the united States as a true hero." This statement was made by a speaker attending the funeral of..?
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