18 terms


Agricultural location model
Def: An attempt to explain the pattern of
agricultural land use in terms of transportation
costs, distance to market, economic rent and prices
Ex. Von Thünen model
Def: the management of aquatic environments
to increase production of organic materials for
harvest (AKA fish farming)
Sig: the conditions are controlled so the
aquatic life grow more rapidly. Some worry
about increased chemical inputs, specie
escapes, disease & degradation of land/waters.
capital-intensive farming
Def. : A single farmer produces as much
as a large number of people by using
capital goods rather than labor
Ex. : MDCs
Combine & Reaper
Reaper: A machine that cuts grain
standing in the field
Combine: A machine that reaps,
threshes and cleans
Sig: Replaces human labor (requires
large capital investment)
cash cropping
Def: growing a surplus of crops with the
intention of selling (or bartering) what is not
consumed on the farm.
• Sig: plantations in the developing world
typically produce crops for export (e.g.
Commercial Agriculture
Def: Agriculture undertaken primarily to
generate products for sale off of the farm.
Sig: Usually uses machinery and other capital
investments over labor and is often connected
to the secondary sector (canneries, etc.)
grain (cereal)
Def. : A grass yielding grain for food (or feed)
Ex. : Oats, wheat, rye, or barley
Def. : The growing of fruits, vegetables,
flowers and tree crops
Ex: In the lands bordering the Mediterranean
Sea, the two most important cash crops are
olives and grapes
market gardening
(e.g. commercial gardening or truck farming)
Def: The intensive, specialized production of fruit
and vegetables. * Truck gardening may be farther
from market & more specialized than market
Sig: Practiced in the US Southeast (for the NE
Def. : the area surrounding a city from
which milk is supplied. The production
of fluid milk.
Ex. : Up-state New York serves east
coast cities.
Mixed Crop & Livestock
Def: farmers grow crops to feed to
their commercial livestock. The
manure is then used to grow crops.
Sig.: most common form of
agriculture in North America and
Europe (AKA mixed farming)
Plantation farming
• A large, usually foreign owned, farm that
specializes in one or two cash crops in the
tropics (legacy of colonialism)
• Ex: coffee plantations in the tropical
Americas or rubber plantations in SE Asia
Def. : A form of commercial agriculture
in which livestock graze over an
extensive area
Sig.: practiced in MDCs where the
vegetation is sparse and the soil too poor
to support crops
Settlement patterns
Def: the spatial
distribution of
Ex: dispersed
(township and range
sys.) and clustered
Sinclair Model
Def: an agricultural location model that has
updated the Von Thunen model.
Sig: transportation advancements has made
proximity to market less important & the land
closest to market will not be used for
agriculture at all because of future urban
survey systems
(cadastral survey)
Def: how landed properties are
arranged and demarcated
Ex: township & range system, longlot
& metes and bounds
Spring and Winter wheat
• Winter wheat is planted in the fall/autumn and
harvested in the late spring or early summer
(Kansas, Colorado, and Oklahoma)
• Spring Wheat is planted in the spring and
harvested in the late summer (Montana, the
Dakotas, and southern Canada)
• Sig: winter wheat is planted in warmer belts than
spring wheat
Von Thünen Model
Def: The idea that different crops are suitable
specific distances from the market based on their
transportation costs and market prices
Sig: Model assumptions are that there is one
market, all land is equal & transportation costs
increase from the market