Def: natural storage of underground water • Sig: Aquifers are depleting faster than they are being replenished due to excessive pumping for irrigation.
• Def: application of science and technology to living organisms and their parts and products. (Many limit it to genetic engineering). • Sig: Biotech allows us to overcome many challenges (e.g. climate, distance) but may create new challenges (e.g. health, super pests).
Population growth forces a conversion from extensive to intensive agriculture. As population increases, we will find a way to supply food. Ex: The green revolution
Financial transactions in which a portion of a developing nation's foreign debt is forgiven in exchange for a reduction in deforestation Ex. Tropical Forest Conservation Act (1998)
Def: the complete felling and clearing of a forest (often for agricultural purposes). • Sig: it increases as societies increase in population and industrialize but decreases as they stabilize and develop
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animals grazing, and tree cutting Ex. Sahel region below the Sahara desert
Def: a sustainable technique where one crop is grown between the rows of a different crop Sig: Planting taller and stronger crops to protect smaller more fragile crops
Def: An emphasis on buying agricultural products that are produced closer to the market for environmental & health reasons. • Sig: Some argue that local produce requires less fuel & chemical preservatives. It is a reaction to global industrial agriculture.
Def: a cultivation of a single crop specie exclusively. • Sig: it can lead to a buildup of disease and pests without crop rotation
Def: farming without the use of synthetic pesticides Sig: healthier with less environmental impact though lower yields
Def: Farming methods that preserve long productivity of land and minimize pollution. Ex. Soil rotation, organic farming & intertillage
• Def: the marketing of a product with the name of the region where it is produced in order to add value • Ex: Napa wines, Champagne sparkling wine, parmigiano-reggiano cheese
Value-Added Specialty Foods
Def: small scale, or craft, foods processed on the farms • Ex: craft chocolate made locally with organic milk (more expensive)
Def: filling in wetlands with development (often high-demand coastal lands) • Sig: wetlands serve as flood control, home to many species and stopping grounds for migratory birds