14 terms


Def: natural storage of underground water
• Sig: Aquifers are depleting faster than they
are being replenished due to excessive
pumping for irrigation.
• Def: application of science and technology
to living organisms and their parts and
products. (Many limit it to genetic
• Sig: Biotech allows us to overcome many
challenges (e.g. climate, distance) but may
create new challenges (e.g. health, super
Ester Boserup
Population growth forces a conversion from
extensive to intensive agriculture. As population
increases, we will find a way to supply food.
Ex: The green revolution
Debt-for-nature swap
Financial transactions in which a portion of a
developing nation's foreign debt is forgiven in
exchange for a reduction in deforestation
Ex. Tropical Forest Conservation Act (1998)
Def: the complete
felling and clearing of a
forest (often for
agricultural purposes).
• Sig: it increases as
societies increase in
population and
industrialize but
decreases as they
stabilize and develop
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas
primarily because of human actions like excessive
crop planting, animals grazing, and tree cutting
Ex. Sahel region below the Sahara desert
Def: a sustainable technique where one
crop is grown between the rows of a
different crop
Sig: Planting taller and stronger crops to
protect smaller more fragile crops
Local-Food Movement
Def: An emphasis on buying agricultural
products that are produced closer to the
market for environmental & health reasons.
• Sig: Some argue that local produce requires
less fuel & chemical preservatives. It is a
reaction to global industrial agriculture.
Def: a cultivation of a single crop specie
• Sig: it can lead to a buildup of disease and
pests without crop rotation
Organic farming
Def: farming without the use of
synthetic pesticides
Sig: healthier with less environmental
impact though lower yields
Sustainable Agriculture
Def: Farming methods that preserve
long productivity of land and
minimize pollution.
Ex. Soil rotation, organic farming & intertillage
Regional Appellations
• Def: the marketing of a product with the
name of the region where it is produced in
order to add value
• Ex: Napa wines, Champagne sparkling
wine, parmigiano-reggiano cheese
Value-Added Specialty Foods
Def: small scale, or craft, foods processed
on the farms
• Ex: craft chocolate made locally with
organic milk (more expensive)
Wetlands Destruction
Def: filling in wetlands with development
(often high-demand coastal lands)
• Sig: wetlands serve as flood control, home
to many species and stopping grounds for
migratory birds