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chest radiographic examinations

most ommon of all radiographic procedures.

chest or thorax

upper portion of the trunk between the neck and the abdomen.

bony thorax respiratory system proper , mediastinum

the three sections of the chest

bony thorax

is that part of the skeletal system that provides a protective framework for the parts of the chest involved with breathing and blood circulation.

thoracic viscera

term used to describe these parts of the chest consisiting of the lungs and the remaining thoracic organs contained in the mediastinum


breast bone


superior portion of the sternum


largest portion of the sternum

xiphoid process

smaller inferior portion is the

examples of bony thorax

sternum two clavicles two scapulae twelve pairs of ribs twelve throracic vertebrae

vertebra prominens and jugular notch

for chest positioning two of these landmarks are the

vertebra prominens

can be an important landmark for determining the central ray location on a posteroanterior (PA) chest projection. It can be palpated readily on most patients by applying light pressure with the fingertips at the base of the neck. The vertebra prominens is the first prominent process felt as you gently but firmly palpate down the back of the neck with the head dropped forward. With a little practice this landmark can be located readily on most patients especially if the head and the neck are flexed forward.

jugular notch (manubrial or suprasternal notch)

The jugular notch is an important lanmark for determiningthoracic vertebra the central ray placement on anteroposterior (AP) chest projections. This is palpated easily as a deep notch or depression on the superior portion of the sternum below the thyroid carilage. The midthorax at level T7 (seventh thoracic vertebra)

T7 seventh thoracic vertebra

where the central ray should be located in chest x -rays ap pa

xiphoid process (tip)

the inferior tip of the sternum which corresponds to the level of T9 or T10 can also be palpated this corresponds to the approximate level of the anterior portion of the diagram which separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. However this is not a reliable lanmark for positioning the chest because of body habitus variations and the variable loer position of the posterior lungs, which may extend as far as T11 or T12 on inspiration.


is xiphoid process tip a reliable landmark for positioning the chest

T9 or T10

Xiphoid process (tip) corresponds to the level of


exchange of gaseous substances between the air we breathe and the bloodstream.

pharynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs

four general divisions of the respiratory system


An important structure of the respiratory system is the domeshaped _________ which is the primary muscle of insiration.


Each half of the diaphragm is called


lungs to fill with air


As dome of diaphragm moves downward it _________ the volume of the thoracic caity


structure or passageway that is important to the respiratory system because air must pass through it before entering the respiratory system which begins with larynxor voice box.

upper respiratory tract



posterior area between the nose and mouth above the larynx and esophagus below.

passageway for both food and fluids as well as for air thus making it common to the digestive and respiratory systems

pharynx area serves as


For this reason the pharynx is ___ considered part of the respiratory system

nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx

3 divisions of the pharynx

hard palate and soft palate

make up the roof of the oral cavity


the lower posterior aspect of the soft palate is called the


The laryngopharynx lies above and posterior to the larynx and extends from the upper border of the _________ to where the laryngopharyn narrows to join the esophagus

thyroid cartilage

adams appleto


part of digestive system that connects the pharynx with the stomach

larynx, trachea, right and left bronchi, lungs

four parts of respiratory system that are important in chest radiography


voice box is a cagelike cartilaginous structure that is approximately 1.5 to 2 inches (4to 5cm) in length in the adult


The larynx is located in the anterior portion of the neck suspended from a small bone called the _____

vocal cords

the larynx serves as the organ of voice. Sounds are made as air passes between the ____ ____ located within the larynx .


The upper margin of the larynx is at approximate level of


The lower margin where the larynx joins with the trachea is at the level of

thyroid cartilage

The framework of the larynx consist of carilages that are connected by ligaments and moved by numerous muscles that assist in the complex sound making or voice process. The largest and least mobile of these cartilages is the ______ _________ which consists of two fused platelike structures that form the anterior wall of the larynx.

laryngeal prominence

The prominent anterior projection of the thyroid cartilage is palpated easily and is known as the _________ __________ or adams apple


The laryngeal prominence or adams apple is located at approximately

cricoid cartilage

a ring of cartilage that forms the inferior and posterior walls of the larynx. It is attached to the first ring of cartilage of the trachea.


One of the cartilages that make up the larynx is the uniquely shaped __________ which resembles a leaf with the narrow distal stem portion attached to a par of the thyroid cartilage. This flips and covers the trachea during the act of swallowing


continuing from the larynx downward teh second division of the respiratory system proper is the _______ or windpipe. It is a fibrous muscular tube about 3/4 inch (2cm) in diameter and 4 1/2 inches (11cm) long.


Approximately __ c-shaped rings of cartilage are embedded in the walls of the trachea

thyroid, parathyroid thymus glands

glands located near the respiratory system

thyroid gland

vascular organ that is located anteriorly in the neck region just below the larynx with its right and left lateral lobes lying on each side and distal to the proximal trachea. In adult it weighs 25 to 30 g = to 1 oz and has a rich blood supply . As with other such glandular organs the thyroid gland is more radiosensitive than many other body structures or organs. Therefore, it is important for radiographers to know the relative size and location of this gland so they can reduce exposure to these regions as much as possible by shielding and by collimation of the x-ray beam

parathyroid glands

small round glands that are embedded in the posterior surface of the lateral lobes of the thyroid gland.

store and secrete certain hormones that aid in specific blood functions including maintenance of blood calcium levels

parathyroid glands

thymus gland

located just distal to thyroid gland

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