semester one english final
Terms in this set (91)
one independent clause
2 or more independent clauses, usually connected wit ha coordinating conjunction
1 indep. clause and 1 or more depen. clause
2 or more indep. clauses, one or more depen. clauses
subordinate conjunction or relative pronoun
what does a shazam word do to a dependent clause?
transforms the clause so it can no longer stand alone, so you then have to add an independent clause
examples of subordinate conjunctions
when, if, although, since, before
examples of relative pronouns
that, which, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, what, whatever
usually begins with relative pronoun
ex: Whoever gossips to you will gossip about you.
usually begins with relative pronoun
ex: The ARROW that has left the bow never returns.
usually begins with a subordinate conjunction
ex: When the well is dry, we know the worth of water
names a person, place, thing, idea, action or quality
names who or what the sentence is about
names the receiver of the action
tells to or for whom the action of the sentence is done
word used in place of a noun
a word used to modify or describe a noun or pronoun.
Answers the following questions: Which one? What kind of? How many?
expresses action or being
how many types of verbs?
links the subject to a subject complement
a word or word group that
completes the meaning of the subject by renaming or describing it
requires an object to complete its meaning in a sentence; this
object names a receiver of the action
takes no objects or compliments; a sentence with an intransitive
verb is always patterned subject/verb
used to modify or qualify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
Answers the questions: When? Where? How? Why? Under what conditions?
a class of words that are typically placed before a noun to
form a phrase that modifies another word in the sentence, usually acting as an
adverb or an adjective
used to join words, phrases, or clauses
used to express surprise or emotion
Use commas before a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for, so, and yet)
when it joins independent clauses
commas pt 2
Use commas to set off nonessential clauses and nonessential participial phrases
nonessential clause or participial phrase
adds info that is not needed to understand the main idea of the sentence
commas pt 3
Use commas after certain introductory elements
commas after introductory elements
Use a comma after a word such as next, yes, or no as well as after an introductory
interjection such as why, well, or oops.
2. Use a comma after an introductory participial phrase.
3. Use a comma after the last of two or more introductory prepositional phrases.
4. Use a comma after and introductory adverb clause. .
commas pt 4
Use commas to set off elements that interrupt a sentence
words or phrases set off by commas
appositive phrases, words for a direct address, parenthetical expressions
function as ADJECTIVES and contain either present
participles (ending in -ing) or past participles (ending in -d, -ed, -n, -en, or -t).
are built around present participles (verb forms ending in -ing) and
they always function as NOUNS (usually as subjects or objects)
are always constructed around the word TO and the base form of the verb (to call, to drink) and they can function as NOUNS, as ADJECTIVES, or as ADVERBS
what was british romanticism a reaction against?
prevailing state of affairs (political, social, intellectual, artistic, etc)
what was british romanticism a backlash against...?
conditions of Industrial Rev.
british romanticism glorified...?
british romanticism had an emphasis on...?
emotion, imagination, intuition
how did british romanticism help the individual?
asserted rights and interests of the individual
what did british romanticism lead to
individual and social revolutions
1st generation poets:
-William Blake (etchings)
-Samuel Tyler Coleridge
2nd generation poets
-Lord Byron (George Gordon)
-Percy Bysse Shelley
William Blake "London"
-working conditions were terrible
-England was not doing a good job taking care of its people
-after French Rev. started thinking about making their own Rev.
William Wordsworth "The Tables Have Turned"
-let nature be your teacher
-things weren't balanced between nature and intellect
-put down your books and go outside
-experience nature and it'll teach you
Samuel Coleridge "The Eolian Harp"
-the eolian harp is compared to a coy maid, and the wind is compared to her lover
-the sound of the harp is compared to the sound elves make in fairyland
-he's overthinking too much
-some things can't be explained (love, nature, religion) and you just have to believe
tell reader what this section is going to be about
introduce evidence; prepare your reader
give your evidence
quote or direct referance
discuss/analyze the evidence before you go on to the next piece of evidence; explain how this piece of evidence helps SUPPORT your topic sentence
what are the 2 grammatically correct responses to the question; how are you?
I am good, I am well
why do both , i am good and i am well, work
both are adj, in this example, are describing the subject of the sentence, called subject complements
what is the verb "to be" in this case
a linking verb, suggests a state of being, not an action
link a subject to its subject comolement
complete or describe subject
adj form of well; answer I am well
suggests healthiness, so if the question is directed towards health, you answer with well
answer I am good
if question is directed towards general welfare, state of mind, or mood
day of God
original Germanic god of war and patron god of justice
Germanic chief god
germanic god of thunder
Germanic goddess of love and fertility
"day of Saturn"
Roman god of agriculture
finding german equivalents to these day names from their own mythology
who created first dictionary?
when was first dictionary created
Janus, Roman god of the doorway
Februa, purification ritual
Mars, Roman god of war
aperire, latin meaning "to open"
Maia, associated with Roman goddess of fertility and growth
Juno, Roman goddess of fertility
Julius (Caesar), dictator of Roman empire
Augustus (Caesar), 1st emperor of Roman empire
how did Noah Webster see himself?
as a reformer of the english language
what did noah webster believe?
that spelling for british english was too complex, and proposed simpler spellings
a words history and development
what calendar are we currently using?
order of calendars
roman - julian - gregorian
what % of the words we use today are old english?
good example of old english:
good example of middle english:
in 1066 the French invaded and conquered England. French became the language of their cultural sphere: government,
law, education, art, and upper class life in general. English, however, continued to be spoken by the majority of the population: servants, craftsmen, farmers, foresters—the common working people. For several hundred years, England was a bilingual country
great vowel shift
significant shift in pronunciation, no one knows exactly why it happened